Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 11 The Proposal

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 11 The Proposal

Let’s begin:

Question 1.
Facial expressions are non-verbal communications. These expressions play an important role in a play. They are powerful communication tools. The human face is extremely expressive. It is able to convey countless emotions without saying a word. Expressions tell us the mood of the characters in the play. Some facial expressions are given below. The facial expressions are for happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust. Look at the facial expressions and write which emotions do they express.
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 11 The Proposal 1
Answer:
(i) anger
(ii) confused
(iii) bewildered
(iv) happy
(v) afraid
(vi) surprised

Question 2.
You have read ‘The Proposal’, a one act play. It is a farce. The play is set in only one location, the drawing room of Chubukov’s house. All three characters in the play are quarrelsome people and they quarrel over petty issues. Lomov and Natalya start with the issue like a piece of land that is situated at the border between the two neighbors’ properties. The discussion turns into a quarrel and the marriage proposal is forgotten. They shout at each other. They are again dragged into an argument over the superiority of each other’s dogs. So, they drag their ancestors in their foolish quarrel. They again abuse each other and call names.
Now, make groups of four and discuss the following points. While conducting the discussion, try to use the facial expressions given above.

  • The marriage proposal is a mockery of romance and marriage in the upper class.
  • The pride in property, even the superiority of dogs, take priority over love and marriage.
  • The characters lack patience, stop listening to each other, and then contradict each other.
  • Do you think these quarrels will promise a happy life?
  • What qualities would you consider for a well- matched couple?
  • Do you think all of us should know how to manage our anger?

Answer:
→ For the upper class of society; everything is to be measured and weighed in terms of money. Marriage and romance are no exception to the rule. Wherever they go, they make their presence felt through bragging.

→ For the people of upper class, the property that they possess is far better than that of other’s. In no case they are ready to admit that a thing or two that they possess is of inferior quality.

→ Lomov and Natalya are the main characters who lack patience to hear at least what the other person has to say; what of understanding what they say ? After having a tough fight Natalya presess her father to call Lomov back and talk about her marriage.

→ No, these quarrels can never promise a happy life; instead it will mar the conjugal life of the married couple.

→ For a well matched couple; there is only one golden word that I would suggest – complement each other; do not compete with each other. Since to err is human; a partner is supposed to compensate for the lacuna that the other partner possesses.

→ Yes, all of us must know how to manage our anger.

Reading Comprehension:

Text I
How Can We Control Anger?
Do you get angry when your mother switches off the television ? Do you get upset when you lose a game ? Do you crib when your teacher does not pay attention to you ? Most of us can have “yes” as an answer to one or more of these situations. Anger sometimes gets the better of us and leaves us to regret the consequences later. The question is ‘How can we control anger?’

Anger is a normal and healthy emotion only if we know how to respond to it. Uncontrolled anger can often harm us directly or indirectly whether we realise or not. Before we learn to address the issue, let us revisit the concept of anger. Anger is nothing but absence of peace with oneself, people or situations around us. We express it either by being assertive or aggressive.

Let us all become the managers of our own anger. When angry, take a few moments to calm down (take five deep breaths, count up to ten, drink water, change your place) before responding. More often than not we do not have control over the situations that distress us. Getting physically active reduces stress. Funny dances, clapping, thumping your feet, a walk, making funny faces at the mirror, etc., go a long way in helping us let go of the anger or the frustration inside us. Once we have our feelings under control, go through all the aspects of the situation and try to see the same situation from different perspectives. If it is a problem try to equip yourself with a few solutions before entering the same situation. Avoid holding a grudge with people and learn when to seek help from others. Realising your own shortcomings can become one of the greatest strengths of character over the years to come.

We can never control circumstances, people or situations as they are constantly changing. The only thing we can control is our response. So we have to increase our capacity to tolerate, ability to understand, and learn to nurture love for others.

Question 1.
What do you understand by the word ‘anger’?
Answer:
Anger is nothing but absence of peace with oneself, people or situations around us. We express it either by being assertive or aggressive.

Question 2.
List any four strategies to manage anger.
Answer:
Four strategies to manage anger are:

  • take five deep breaths.
  • count up to ten.
  • drink water.
  • change your place

Question 3.
How can you develop strengths of character as given in the passage above?
Answer:
Realising one’s own shortcomings can become one of the greatest strengths of character.

Question 4.
Anger management helps you in (Tick the correct answer.)
(a) remaining always happy
(b) developing strength of character
(c) remaining stress free
(d) learning how to respond to the situation
Answer:
(a) X
(b) ✓
(c) X
(d) X

Question 5.
What is under our control ? How can we make it a positive one?
Answer:
Under our control, there is only one thing — that is; our response. By increasing our capacity to tolerate, ability to understand and nurture love for others, we can make it a positive one.

Text II

On Violence:
There is a great deal of violence in the world. There is physical violence and also inward violence. Physical violence is to kill another, to hurt other people consciously, deliberately or without thought, to say cruel things, full of antagonism and hate and inwardly, inside the skin, to dislike people, to hate people, to criticise people. Inwardly, we are always quarrelling, battling, not only with others, but with ourselves. We want people to change, we want to force them to our way of thinking.

In the world, as we grow up, we see a great deal of violence, at all levels of human existence. The ultimate violence is war – the killing for ideas, for so-called religious principles, for nationalities, the killing to preserve a little piece of land. To do that, man will kill, destroy, maim, and also be killed himself. There is enormous violence in the world, the rich wanting to keep people poor, and the poor wanting to get rich and in the process hating the rich. And you, being caught in society, are also going to contribute to this.

There is violence between husband, wife, and children. There is violence, antagonism, hate, cruelty, ugly criticism, anger – all this is inherent in man, inherent in each human being. It is inherent in you. And education is supposed to help you to go beyond all that, not merely to pass an examination and get a job. You have to be educated so that you become a really beautiful, healthy, sane, rational human being, not a brutal man with a very clever brain who can argue and defend his brutality. You are going to face all this violence as you grow up. You will forget all that you have heard here, and will be caught in the stream of society. You will become like the rest of the cruel, hard, bitter, angry, violent world, and you will not help to bring about a new society, a new world.

But a new world is necessary. A new culture is necessary. The old culture is dead, buried, burnt, exploded, and vaporised. You have to create a new culture. A new culture cannot be based on violence. The new culture depends on you because the older generation has built a society based on violence, based on aggressiveness and it is this that has caused all the confusion, all the misery. The older generations have produced this world and you have to change it. You cannot just sit back and say, “I will follow the rest of the people and seek success and position.”

If you do, your children are going to suffer. You may have a good time, but your children are going to pay for it. So, you have to take all that into account, the outward cruelty of man to man in the name of god, in the name of religion, in the name of self-importance, in the name of the security of the family. You will have to consider the outward cruelty and violence, and the inward violence which you do not yet know. (Source: ‘On Violence’, On Education, J. Krishnamurti)

Question 1.
What is the physical violence that J. Krishnamurti is talking about?
Answer:
Physical violence is to kill another; to hurt other people consciously, deliberately or without thought, to say cruel things, full of antagonism and hate and inwardly inside the skin, to hate people, to dislike people, to criticise people.

Question 2.
What is the violence that cannot be expressed?
Answer:
Inwardly we are always quarrelling with ourselves; we want people to change, we want to force them to our way of thinking. This is the violence that can not be expressed.

Question 3.
War, the ultimate violence, could be due to (Tick the correct options) –
(a) difference of ideas
(b) religious principles
(c) nationalities
(d) the feeling to protect a little piece of land
(e) all of the above if) none of the above
Answer:
(a) X
(b) X
(c) X
(d) X
(e) ✓
(f) X

Question 4.
How has J. Krishnamurti given the feelings of the rich and the poor in the given paragraph?
Answer:
J. Krishnamurti says that there is enormous violence in the world; the rich wanting to keep people poor and the poor wanting to get rich and in the process hating the rich.

Question 5.
What is the role of education in a human being’s life?
Answer:
According to J. Krishnamurti, there is violence, antagonism,, hate, cruelty, ugly criticism, anger — all inherent in man, in each human being. Education can help man to go beyond all that.

Question 6.
How, as a student, will you create a new world?
Answer:
As a student, we can contribute to making a new world by :

  • staying in peace with our classfellows.
  • helping them in times of need.
  • standing behind them in danger.
  • removing all sorts of violent thoughts against my classfellows/teachers.
  • raising awareness in society against violence through placards, articles, essays etc.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Some verbs are given below. Write their nouns and adverb forms in the space provided.

VERB NOUN ADVERB
encourage
excite
trouble
beautify
tremble

Answer:

VERB NOUN ADVERB
encourage encouragement encouragingly
excite excitement excitingly
trouble trouble troublingly
beautify beauty beautifully
tremble tremble tremblingly

Grammar:

Reported speech:

Question 1.
Some children are taken to a health clinic for a regular checkup. Rewrite the sentences they speak in reported speech. (Use complain, say, tell, ask, inquire, mention, etc., wherever necessary.)
Ashish : I feel sleepy all the time.

Neha : I get pain in my legs when I run.

Sonal: I’m fine.

Ritu : I had fever last week.

Akash : Why do I always cough?

Rehman : Should I walk everyday to keep myself fit?

Sumi : Oh, thank you, Doctor. Now I know the reason for my constant stomach-ache.
Though ‘tell’ and ‘say’ almost mean the same, there are differences in the usage of the two words. ‘Tell’ is always followed by an indirect object but ‘say’ is not.

Example : I told my sister that she was right.
Ashish said he worked hard to achieve success.
We can use ‘ask’ with or without an indirect object.

Example : My mother asked (me) if I was ready for the party.
Answer:
Madhu asked (the tailor) whether her dresses were ready.
Answer:

  • Ashish complained that he felt sleepy all the time.
  • Neha complained that she got pain in her legs when she ran.
  • Sonal said that she was fine.
  • Ritu told that she had fever last week.
  • Akash inquired why he always coughed.
  • Rehman asked if he should walk everyday to keep himself fit.
  • Sumi thanked the doctor and mentioned that she knew, then, the reason for her constant stomach¬ache.

Question 2.
Use ‘said’, ‘told’ or ‘asked’ to fill in the blanks in the following sentences. One has been done for you.
Shilpi : Father, I want to go on a trip to Uttarkashi.
Shilpi told her father that she wanted to go on a trip to Uttarkashi.
Archana : It is very hot in Jaisalmer.
Archana said that it was very hot in Jaisalmer.
(a) The Scientist _________ that dinosaurs lived 230 million years ago.
(b) The teacher _________ the students that she was going to conduct a new experiment.
(c) Could you please _________ me where the new bookshop is located.
(d) The student _________ (the teacher) if it was possible.
(e) It is requested that he should _________ the truth.
(f) Father _________ (his son) whether he had paid his fees or not.
Answer:
(a) said
(b) told
(c) tell
(d) asked
(e) tell
(f) asked

Editing:

Jumbled Sentences:
Question 1.
Join the parts of the sentences given below and write meaningful sentences.
(a) by giving ultimate/individual can transform everything/expression to /the inner determination of an/the infinite potential of human being
(b) down many a time/but keep rising/that you may go/the Sun teaches us
(c) but how much love/much we give/we put into giving/it’s not how
(d) fit for human habitation/would mould the world/the citizens of tomorrow/into a globe
(e) you must hear/to be a great leader /and pains of people/the unspoken joys
Answer:
(a) The inner determination of an individual can transform everything by giving ultimate expression to the infinite potential of human being.
(b) The sun teaches us that you may go down many a time but keep rising.
(c) It’s not how much we give but how much love we put into giving.
(d) The citizens of tomorrow would mould the world into a globe fit for human habitation.
(e) To be a great leader, you must hear the unspoken joys and pains of people.

Listening:

Question 1.
You have read a play by Anton Chekov. Given below is a story by the same author. Listen and enjoy the recorded story or someone may read it aloud to you. Then answer the questions that follow.
Vanka
(Vanka Zhukov, a nine-year old boy, was made an assistant to Alyakhin, the Shoemaker. He didn’t go to bed on Christmas Eve. When everyone in the shop had gone to Church, he began to write on a crumpled sheet of paper. “Dear Grandfather Konstantin, he wrote”, I’m writing a letter to you. I wish you a Merry Christmas and all good things from the Lord God. I’ve no father and mother, and you are all I am left with.”)

Vanka raised his eyes to the dark windowpane. In his imagination he saw his grandfather Konstantin standing there. His grandfather was a night watchman on the estate of a rich man. Konstantin was a small, thin and lively old man of sixty-five whose face was always crinkling with laughter. In the daytime the old man slept in the servant’s kitchen or cracked jokes with the cooks. At night, wrapped in a big sheepskin coat he made rounds of the estate, blowing his whistle at regular intervals. He was always followed by his dogs, Brownie and Eel. Eel was a particularly remarkable dog. He was extremely respectful and endearing and looked lovingly on friends and strangers alike; yet no one trusted him. He would creep behind someone and bite his leg or run off with a peasant’s chicken. Many a time Eel was beaten mercilessly, yet he always managed to survive.

At this very moment, Vanka thought, grandfather was probably standing by the gates, looking up at the bright red windows of the village church and cracking jokes with the servants.

“What about a pinch of snuff ?” he would say, holding out his snuffbox to the women.

The women wotlld take a pinch and sneeze and the old man would feel happy about it. “Fine for frozen noses, eh!” he’d say.

The dogs, too, were given snuff. Brownie would sneeze, shake her head and walk away looking hurt. Eel, too polite to sneeze, only wagged his tail.

Vanka looked through the window. The weather was glorious. The air was fresh. The night was very dark, but the roofs of the houses and trees were all covered with snow. Stars twinkled in the sky and it appeared that they had been washed and placed there only for the holidays.

Vanka sighed, and went on writing: “Yesterday I was given a beating. That was because when I was rocking the baby in the cradle, I unfortunately fell asleep. Another day the mistress of the house asked me to clean the fish. I didn’t know how, so she rubbed the fish all over my face. My friends laughed at me. Then there’s nothing to eat. In the morning they give me bread, there is porridge for dinner and in the evening only bread again. The master and the mistress eat all the good things themselves. I sleep in the corridor and when the baby cries, I don’t get any sleep at all because I’ve to rock the cradle. Dear Grandfather, please take me away from here, take me to the village, it’s more than I can bear.” Vanka rubbed his eyes with his fists and sobbed.

“I’ll grind your snuff for you, he went on”, I’ll pray to God to keep you healthy and if I ever do anything wrong, you can beat me as you like. If you think there’s no place for me then I can clean boots or even work as a shepherd boy. Grandfather, it’s more than I can bear. I thought of running away to the village, but I don’t have any boots. If you’ll help me now, I’ll feed you when I grow up and when you die I’ll pray for your soul just like I do for my mother.

“Dear Grandfather, when they put up the Christmas tree at the big house, please take down a golden walnut for me and hide it in the green box. Ask the young mistress Olga, and say it is for Vanka.”

Vanka sighed and gazed in the direction of the window. He remembered it was grandfather who always went to the forest to cut down a Christmas tree for the rich people, taking Vanka with him. They had a wonderful time together, the snow falling, the trees crackling and hares springing across the trees,

When the tree had been chopped down, grandfather would drag it to the big house and they would start decorating it. The young mistress Olga, Vanka’s favourite, was the busiest of all. Vanka’s mother, when alive, had worked as Olga’s maid. Then Olga had given him all the sweets and played a lot with Vanka. But after his mother’s death, Vanka was sent to the kitchen to be with his grandfather and from there to Alyakhin, the shoemaker.

“Come to me, dear grandfather,” Vanka wrote on, “Please, take me away from here, have pity on me, a poor orphan. They are always beating me. I’m terribly hungry and so miserable that I’m always crying. Remember me to all my friends. I remain your grandson, Ivan Zhukov. Dear grandfather, please come soon.”

Vanka folded the sheet of paper and then put it in an envelope he had bought the previous day. He thought for a while, then wrote the address: To Grandfather in the Village. He added the words: Konstantin Makarich. He was happy that no one had disturbed him while he was writing his letter. He ran out to the street to post it. Vanka had been told by the clerks that letter were dropped in boxes from where they were carried all over the world on mail coaches drawn by horse and driven by drunken drivers, while the bells jingled. Vanka ran to the nearest mailbox and put his letter in it.

An hour later, lulled by sweetest hopes, he was fast asleep. He dreamed of a stove. His grandfather was sitting beside it, reading out his letter to the cooks. Eel, the dog, was walking round the stove, wagging his tail.
Anton Chekov
(a) Vanka went to bed early on Christmas Eve as _________.
Answer:
he wanted to write a letter to his grandfather describing his perils and cajoling him to take with him.

(b) Why, of all people, did he write a letter to his grandfather?
Answer:
Vanka was an orphaned child; he had no one to share his plights with except his grandfather. He felt happy in his company; so he wrote a letter to his gandfather hoping he would remove all his miseries.

(c) How was his grandfather a very lovable person?
Answer:
His grandfater Konstantin was a night watchman whose face was always crinkling with laughter. In the day time, the old man slept in the servant’s kitchen or cracked jokes with the cooks.

(d) Vanka was beaten _________ times.
Answer:
two

(e) Vanka was beaten because _________.
Answer:
while rocking the baby in the cradle, he had unfortunately fallen asleep.

(f) What was Vanka prepared to do for grandfather if he was taken away from the shoemaker?
Answer:
Vanka was ready to grind snuff for him, to clean boots, or to work as a shepherd boy.

(g) He was sent to Alyakhin, the shoe-maker, to _________.
Answer:
assist the shoe-maker in his business and learn thereby the trade.

(h) Who does Vanka remember most at Christmas, next to his grandfather?
Answer:
Vanka remembers Olga most next to his grandfather because she gave him all the sweets and played with him a lot.

(i) How did he address the letter?
Answer:
Vanka addressed the letter as such – ‘Dear Grandfather Konstantin’

(j) Did he sleep well after posting the letter.? What did he dream?
Answer:
Yes; after posting the letter, Vanka was fast asleep. In his dream during sleep; he saw his grandfather reading his letter and his dog walking round.

Speaking:

Question 1.
Enact the play in the class. Keep in mind – dialogue delivery – tone, voice modulation; non-verbal communications – facial expressions, gestures, movements, etc. Many things are communicated through these non-verbal tools.
Note : Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Two communicative tasks are given below. Practice in pairs or groups.
Task I
(Offering, accepting and refusing Help)
Role Play
Chaman : Hello Prem. You look tired. Is there anything I can do to help you ?
Prem: Thanks very much. I think I can manage. I am preparing a chart on children’s rights.
Chaman : It’s a lot of work. Let me help you.
Prem : Thank you. But I’ve already collected all the necessary information.
Chaman : I can help you in illustrating some of the rights.
Prem : Oh, can you ? That sounds wonderful.
Chaman : Could you tell me the themes to be illustrated ?
Prem: Here you are. I’m really thankful to you.
Chaman : What about children’s duties ?
Prem : Oh, yes. It’s a good suggestion. I’ll list their duties also.
Chaman: Thank you.
Pair or Group Work
Make up conversations like the one above imagining you are in the classroom. Use the clues given below.
(i) Excuse me…
(ii) Yes ?
(iii) I wonder if you could lend me your dictionary I’m doing my class work.
(iv) I’m sorry. I’m using it right now. Maybe later.
(v) That’s okay. Thanks any way.
Makeup similar conversations imagining you are in the following situations – in the kitchen, at the railway station, asking somebody to open the door, in a hospital, in the playground.
Answer:
Aadwik : Excuse me.
Vaamika: Yes ?
Aadwik : I wonder you could lend me your dictionary; I am doing my class work.
Vaamika : I am sorry. I am using it right now. May be later.
Aadwik: That’s okay. Thanks any way.
Similar conversations
(1) Ritwik : Excuse me, Mumma.
Mumma: Yes ?
Ritwik: Would you please take down that bottle of chocolate from the shelf.
Mumma: Why ?
Ritwik : I have to drink it mixing in my glass of milk.
Mumma : Wait a minute; I am doing something serious.
(After a while Mumma takes down the bottle of chocolate and hands over to Ritwik.)
Ritwik: Thank you, Mumma.

(2) Hazari : Would you please open the door from inside, sir ?
Passenger: Isn’t there anybody else at the gate ?
Hazari : No, Sir. There is no one near the gate; please take pains; I have a heavy luggage.
Passenger : I’m coming; go near the gate.
Hazari : Ok, Sir.
Passenger : (Comes to the gate and opens it.) Here you are; you may board the train.
Hazari : Thank you, Sir, thanks a lot.

(3) Meena : Excuse.
Radha : Yes ?
Meena : Would you mind sharing your thermos of hot water; I’ve to prepare milk for the child.
Radha : I’m sorry. I too have to prepare milk a little later and I am left with a little hot water. WHiy don’t you take it from the pantry ?
Meena : Ok! Thanks!! This thing had not struck my mind. Thanks any way.

(4) Hari : Excuse me, sir.
Mr. Pandey : Yes ?
Hari: I’ve received injury in my knees. Can you please give me a band aid from the first aid box ?
Mr. Pandey : Why not ? After all this is for you. By the way how did you receive injury ? You should be careful.
Hari: While running behind the ball, I fell into a ditch caused by rain water. (He gets a band from Mr. Pandey). Thank you, sir, thanks a lot.

Task II

(Discussing, giving opinions, agreeing, and disagreeing)
Role Play:
Smita : Well! What do you think about violence on television?
Romila: If you ask me, there is too much violence on television. Children should not be exposed to it.
Smita : I don’t agree with you. Why do you say so?
Romila : It’s not wise to expose children to a lot of fighting, shooting, stabbing, and killing.
Smita : But children find it thrilling.
Romila : No, they don’t. On the contrary it brutalises them and makes them insensitive. They look upon violence and killing as common place incidents.
Smita : But the young people now-a-days are quite violent.
Romila : Precisely. It is the influence of television.Wouldn’t it be better if through television we give them the message of peace and togetherness.
Pair or Group Work
Discuss with your friends the following topics – people going abroad for studies, building a dispensary in place of a playground, sports cannot be a profession, or any topic that is of interest to you and your friends.
Answer:
(1) Nitin : I wonder why people go abroad for higher studies. India is the land of knowledge. We have world class universities with world class infrastructure in them.

Manu : Degrees issued from foreign countries hold more value than that of degrees issued from Indian universities. Moreover such people show decency and decoram of highest order at the work place.

Nitin : I fail to understand why you think like that. Indian nationals constitute 30% of the working class in America. They are more professional than of their American counterparts.

Manu : You are right; but this is the way of the world. Despite being a place of knowledge, India ranks lower.

Nitin : How pathetic; things must change for the good.

(2) Akshay : Vidyut; did you hear that the land ear marked in our colony for a playground is going to be given for a dispensary ?

Vidyut: Yes; I heard but it’s injustice. Don’t you think so ?

Akshay : I do agree with you but I think on a larger plain. A dispensary will be more useful than that of a playground. With passage of time; playgrounds are usually converted into the dens of gangsters.

Vidyut : You are right; dear. A dispensary will be better to have; people of our colony will get immediate medical help.

(3) Ruchika : I’m of the firm opinion that sports can not be a profession; instead it is a source of entertainment.

Virdi : You are mistaken, my dear. Sports is a career in this world of ours. There are several people who have chosen it deliberately; got trained and succeeded. Today they are stars in their world. They lead a luxurious life due to their unmatched skills in their particular sports.

Ruchika : Why talk of those who are beyond our reach ? Take for example ourselves. Do you play ever for money?

Virdi: Doing something on a common plain may not bring success or make you a celebrity but if you do it in a big way; you can choose it to be a career.

Ruchika : Yes, yaar. What you say seems right but my conscience does not allow me to accept that sports is a profession. Anyway, thanks.

Writing:

Question 1.
Letters in the olden times were carried by mail coaches driven by horses. How are they carried today ? List the types of letters sent by different means of transport.
Answer:
Cards and envelopes are considered first class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air transport. The second class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail covering land and water transport. To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani channel, Metro channel, Green channel, Business channel, Bulk Mail channel and Periodical channel.

Question 2.
You have listened to the story of Vanka. Try writing an e-mail to your grandfather describing your life. Have you ever felt as bad as Vanka did? What did you do to feel happy again?
Answer:
From : [email protected]
To : [email protected]
Subject: Experience of a PG Life.
Compose mail
Dear Grandpa,
For completing of Diploma, I have shifted to Delhi and live in a Paying Guest residence. Food served here, I found, was of very low quality. They do not hesitate to serve stale food items; to add fuel to fire, they have imposed a limitation on its amount. For breakfast; they give only one paratha; for lunch; hardly a fistful of rice and for dinner; only two chapatis. Fed up with the system, I decided to hire a room here and cook myself to remove my difficulties. Things are fine now but I have to waste my precious time in cooking.
Any way I feel happy to have overcome my difficulties.
With love and regards :
Your grandson,
Nitin

Question 3.
(a) You have read ‘A Letter to God’ in your textbook First Flight. Lencho wrote a letter to God expressing his desire. Did it reach God ?
Answer:
No, Lencho’s letter did not reach God but it reached a post master who acted like God by sending him the desired amount of money.

(b) Do you think Vanka’s letter reached his grandfather ? What is the correct way to address a letter ?
Answer:
In villages, the postman knows everybody by his name. Hence there is every possibility that the Vanka’s letter might have reached his grandfather. However, Vanka forgot to write the address on the envelope. So it is likely that it might not have reached his grandfather.

The correct way address a letter is :

Name of place
Date :

Salutation
____________________
____________________
____________________
Yours truly.
XYZ
Address :Mame of person concerned.
Lane No. ___, Block No. ___,
Floor No. ___, Flat No. ___,
Residential complex name
Place (PIN CODE)

(c) Suppose Vanka and Lencho meet. Create an interesting dialogue between the two. What encouraged them to write letters to God and grandfather ?.
Dialogue
Lencho : Hello! Vanka.
Vanka : Hello! How are you ?
Lencho : ____________________
Vanka : ____________________
Lencho : ____________________
Vanka : ____________________
Lencho : ____________________
Vanka : ____________________
Answer:
Lencho : Since I lost my crops in heavy hail storm, I asked God for help. He responded to me but the postal people are crooked fellows; they paid me less amount than it was sent. I complained to God. His response is awaited.

Vanka : Being fed up with my landlord, I wrote a letter to my grandfather to rescue me from here and take me to his place. Surprisingly I got no response so far; but my grandpa is a jolly kind of person.

Lencho : The moment I get rest of the money from God; I would be relieved of my worries for a year. Otherwise I shall have go hungry for the whole year; I have nothing to feed to even my wife and children.

Vanka : Be patient, my dear. God is kind; He takes time but the wish is fulfilled in due course.

Lencho : Yes; I agree. I have firm faith that your grandfather will come to your rescue soon.

Vanka : Let’s hope so. God is Great.

Lencho : Yes; God is Great.

Project

Question 1.
Suppose you were asked to find a groom or a bride for a member of your family. What characteristics would you look for in them ? Make a list.
You can also talk to them to know what they think their partner must possess.
Answer:
List of characteristics I would look for:

  • Fair complexion
  • Smart (in outlook and appearance)
  • Educational qualification.
  • Experience in any job (if any)
  • Family background and status
  • Not physically handicapped
  • Sober by nature
  • Compatible hobbies, habits and dressing sense
  • curious to learn and obey
  • respects elders
  • active and participative
  • God fearing (religious).

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras

Let’s Begin:

Question 1.
In the lesson ‘The Sermon at Benaras’ you were asked to find out the meaning of ‘sermon’. The meanings are given below but these are in different contexts:
→ a talk on a religious or moral subject
→ a long or monotonous piece of admonition or caution or a warning, a lecture.
(a) Discuss with your classmates the context to which the present text belongs.
Answer:
The chapter ‘The Sermon at Benaras’ discusses the religious preachings of Lord Buddha on life, death, suffering, immortality etc. The word ‘Sermon’ here has been used in reference to a talk on a religious on moral subject.

(b) What could be the examples for the different context according to you?
Answer:
Examples for the different contexts are:
(1) a talk on a religious or moral subject
Example – A speech delivered by a philanthropist or a spiritual leader on subjects concerning the truth about human existence and its connection with the Divine matrix.

(2) a long or monotonous piece of admonition or caution or a warning, a lecture.
Example – A piece of advice given to a child by his parents on the right kind of conduct to be demonstrated and maintained before the guests.

(c) When your parents or elders say something, you say, “Oh, not again!” When do you say so and why?
Answer:
When your parents or elders ask you to be careful on road, or they lecture you to be on your right behaviour before the guests or they give you any kind of advice in relation to sensitive matters like marriage, live in relationship etc, you end up using expressions like “oh, not again!” The probable reason behind this could be that children assume that they don’t need any kind of lecturing or advices and they are already aware. It could also be possibly due to the fact that children think that the elders are restricting their freedom by imposing things on them, telling them to be on their best behaviour at all times.

Question 2.
Read the poem given below in the context of ‘The Sermon at Benaras’. It was actually delivered as a part of a sermon in 1910 by the author, Canon Henry Scott Holland (1847 – 1918), a priest at St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. After reading the poem, discuss in groups of four and list the similarities and differences between ‘The Sermon at Benaras’ and ‘Death Is Nothing At All’. For example the theme, the situation, the philosophy of the two speakers etc.
Death Is Nothing At All
Death is nothing at all.
It does not count.
I have only slipped away into the next room. Nothing has happened.
Everything remains exactly as it was.
I am I, and you are you,
and the old life that we lived so fondly together is untouched, unchanged.
Whatever we were to each other, that we are still. Call me by the old familiar name.
Speak of me in the easy way which you always used. Put no difference into your tone.
Wear no forced air of solemnity or sorrow.
Laugh as we always laughed at the little jokes that we enjoyed together.
Play, smile, think of me, pray for me.
Let my name be ever the household word that it always was.
Let it be spoken without an effort, without the ghost of a shadow upon it.
Life means all that it ever meant.
It is the same as it ever was.
There is absolute and unbroken continuity.
What is this death but a negligible accident?
Why should I be out of mind because I am out of sight? I am but waiting for you, for an interval, somewhere very near, just round the corner.
All is well.
Nothing is hurt; nothing is lost.
One brief moment and all will be as it was before. How we shall laugh at the trouble of parting when we meet again!
Canon Henry Scott Holland
Answer:

Differences Similarities
(1) ‘The Sermon at Benaras’ is an excerpt from the sermon preached by Gautama, the Buddha at Benaras. Whereas ‘Death is nothing at all’ is an excerpt from the sermon delivered in 1910 by the author, Cannon Henry Scott Holland, a priest at St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. (1) Both the Sermons share a common theme – Death is inevitable. It comes upon all those who have taken birth. As mortals we are all subject to death.
(2) ‘The Sermon at Benaras’ was addressed to a woman by the name of ‘Kisa Gotami’ who had lost his only son and came to Buddha for help. Whereas the sermon ‘Death is nothing at All’ Seems to address a large congregation at the church. (2) Both the speakers share the same philosophy to an extent. They advocate that one should not grieve or lament the loss of somebody who has died. Any amount of lamentation is not going to save the dead or bring peace to the one lamenting. Death of a loved one should not bring about any change in those who were attatched to the dead one. They should always remain happy despite the loss.
(3) Buddha, in his preachings called death as something unavoidable. He says that mortals when bom are always in danger of death. Whereas, the speaker in ‘Death is nothing at all’ calls death a negligible accident.
(4) In The Sermon at Benaras’ Buddha preaches that one should not grieve over the death of a loved one as weeping and grieving only cause more and more mental and physical suffering whereas in ‘Death is nothing at all’ it is suggested that one should laugh at the troubles, laugh even at the loss of a loved one and remain happy as death is insignifant and nothing changes after that but remains the same.

Reading Comprehension:

Text – I

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
In the future, if we want a happier humanity, a happy world, we must tackle the root of the problem. Of course the economy and political power are also causes. But the ultimate cause lies within the human mind. Every human action, verbal or physical, even minor actions, have some motivation. Proper motivation or proper development is an important factor. Thus, if intelligence is accompanied with human affection and compassion, what I call human feeling, then it is very useful.

If society’s moral values and standards of behaviour become negative, each of us will suffer. Therefore, the intentions of an individual are very much related to the interests of society. There is a definite correlation.

The educational system and family life are two very important areas. In the educational field, one has to take care not only of the brain, but also of one’s spiritual development. I say “spiritual development” not in a religious sense but simply in the sense of having a good and compassionate heart. If one has a compassionate heart, it automatically brings inner strength and allows for less fear and less doubt. Subsequently, one becomes happier and more open-minded, thus making more friends in society.
(Source: The Transformed Mind, His Holiness, The Dalai Lama)

Question 1.
According to His Holiness, the Dalai Lama what should we do if we want a happier humanity?
Answer:
According to His Holiness, the Dalai Lama we must tackle the root of the problem if we want a happier humanity.

Question 2.
Where does the ultimate cause of the problem lie?
Answer:
The ultimate cause of the problem lies with in the human mind.

Question 3.
“What I call human feeling, then ‘it’ is very useful.” What is ‘it’ referred to here?
Answer:
Intelligence acompanied with human affection and compassion.

Question 4.
Why does the Dalai Lama say that proper motivation is important?
Answer:
He said so because according to him every human action, verbal or physical, evern minor actions, have some motivation. Proper motivation will yield positive results.

Question 5.
Why is there a requirement of correlation between the intention of an individual and the interest of society?
Answer:
The intentions of an individual are very much related to the interests of the society. If society’s moral values and standards of behaviour become negative, each of us will suffer.

Question 6.
What does His Holiness, the Dalai Lama mean by “spiritual development”?
Answer:
By spiritual development he means having a good and compassionate heart.

Question 7.
A compassionate heart brings
(a) _________________
(b) _________________
(c) _________________
Answer:
(a) inner strength
(b) Self confidence
(c) freedom from fear.

Text – II

Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow.
Father Gilligan was overworked and extremely tired as he kept attending to the sick and dying among his parishioners. He was offering them spiritual comfort day and night. One night he fell asleep on a chair. God sent his angel down to help his most beloved servant of the people.
The Ballad of Father Gilligan:
The old priest Peter Gilligan Was weary night and day,
For half his flock were in their beds,
Or under green sods lay.

Once while he nodded on a chair,
At the moth – hour of eve,
Another poor man sent for him,
And he began to grieve.

“I have no rest, nor joy, nor peace,
For people die and die;”
And after cried he, “God forgive!
My body spake, not I!”

And then, half-lying on the chair,
He knelt, prayed, fell asleep;
And the moth-hour went from the fields,
And stars began to peep.

They slowly into millions grew,
And leaves shook in the wind;
And God covered the world with shade,
And whispered to mankind.

Upon the time of sparrow chirp
When the moths came once more,
The old priest Peter Gilligan
Stood upright on the floor.

“Mavrone, Mavrone! The man has died.
While I slept on the chair,”
He roused his horse out of its sleep
And rode with little care.

He rode now as he never rode,
By rocky lane and fen;
The sick man’s wife opened the door:
“Father! You come again!”

“And is the poor man dead ?” he cried.
“He died an hour ago.”
The old priest Peter Gilligan
In grief swayed to and fro.

“When you were gone he turned and died,
As merry as a bird.”
The old priest Peter Gilligan
He knelt him at that word.

“He who hath made the night of stars
For souls who tire and bleed,
Sent one of His great angels down
To help me in my need.

He who wrapped in purple robes,
With planets in His care,
Had pity on the least of things
Asleep upon a chair.”
W.B.Yeats

Question 1.
Why did Father Gilligan cry “my body spake, not I”?
Answer:
Father Gilligan always remained willing to provide his help, in the form of spiritual comfort, to the sick and dying among his parishioners but he was physically overworked and extremely tired.

Question 2.
“The moth-hour of eve”, “the moth hour went” and “the moths came once more” establish a link. They suggest –
(а) the movement of moths.
(b) the passage of time.
(c) the actions of Father Gilligan.
Answer:
(b) the passage of time.

Question 3.
Why did the poet say that the priest “rode with little care” ? Does it mean that the old priest, Peter Gilligan, had no care for the safety of the horse and people on the way? What did he not care about?
Answer:
An old man was dying when father Gilligan was fast asleep in his chair. After getting up from his sleep, he was in a hurry to reach the dying man. He drove really fast through the rocky lane and wet land and didn’t even care about his nor his horse’s safety.

Question 4.
How did the priest feel when he heard that the sick man was dead? (Choose the correct option.)
(a) He was frustrated and amazed.
(b) He was ashamed and annoyed.
(c) He was full of grief and self-condemnation.
Answer:
(c) He was full of grief and self¬condemnation.

Question 5.
Why did Father Gilligan kneel down when he heard the sick man’s wife say “When you were gone…” ?
Answer:
On hearing the words of the sick man’s wife, Father Gilligan was filled with regret for his failure to attend to the sick man and to provide spiritual comfort. His kneeling down was an act of repentance.

Question 6.
How did God help when “the least of things” was in need
Answer:
God helped the ‘least of things’ at the time of need by sending his angel down to the dying man’s house to provide him spiritual comfort when father Gilligan was fast asleep.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Antonyms for the words in the text ‘The Sermon at Benaras’ are given below. Find the words and fill in the blanks.
(a) unfit _________________
(b) joy _________________
(c) contentment _________________
(d) found _________________
(e) cheered _________________
(f) lively _________________
(g) calm _________________
Answer:
(a) befit
(b) sorrow
(c) discontent
(d) lost
(e) grieved
(f) weary
(g) cried

Question 2.
Use a dictionary to find out four words each having the meaning nearest to the ones given below.
Example:
wandered – stroll dawdle drift roam
(а) vowed – ___ ___ ___ ___
(b) preached – ___ ___ ___ ___
(c) preserved – ___ ___ ___ ___
(d) awakened – ___ ___ ___ ___
(e) enlightened
(f) reigned – ___ ___ ___ ___
Answer:
(a) pledged, committed, deposed, promised
(b) proclaimed, sermonized, evangelized, advocated
(c) conserved, protected, safeguarded, looked after
(d) enlightened, aroused, roused, stimulated
(e) illuminated, learned, knowledgeable, informed
(f) ruled, governed, influenced, dominated

Grammar:

Reported Speech:
We use direct speech when we repeat someone’s words and indirect speech when we use our own words to report what someone else has said. We use an appropriate reporting verb, make pronominal (relating to pronouns) changes and change certain words denoting ‘nearness’ in the direct form to words suggesting ‘remoteness’ (in time and place) in the indirect form.

For example:
(a) Riki said, “I’m hungry.”
(b) Riki said that he was hungry.
(c) Alexa said to Meena, “Have you visited your home town Puducherry ?”
(d) Alexa asked Meena if she had visited her home town Puducherry.
In the sentences ‘b’ and ‘d’ there are changes of person (I-he, Meena-you-she, your-her). The reporting verb ‘said’ has been changed to ‘asked’.
Some of the reporting verbs are: tell, ask, reply, warn, say, report, answer, explain, exclaim, mention, promise, suggest, order, etc.

Example:
(a) The doctor said to me, “Drink eight glasses of water to avoid acidity.”
(b) The doctor told me to drink eight glasses of water to avoid acidity.
(c) “Please don’t tell anybody about my illness”, Amita said to me.
(d) Amita asked me not to tell anyone about her illness.

Question 1.
Read the passage (“Kisa Gotami had an only son,… a child, husband,‘parent or friend.”) from the text, the Sermon at Benaras (page 134). Rewrite the paragraphs changing the direct speech into reported speech in the space given below.
Answer:
Kisa Gotami had an only son, and he died. In her grief she carried the dead child to all her neighbours, asking them for medicine, and the people said that she had lost her senses as the boy was dead.
At length, Kisa Gotami met a man who replied to her request and said that he could not give the medicine for her child but he knew a physician who could.
And the girl asked the man to tell him who it was. The man told him to go to Salyamuni the Buddha.
Kisa Gotami repaired to the Buddha and requested him to give the medicine that would cure her boy.
The Buddha said that he wanted a handful of mustard-seed. And when the girl in her joy promised to procure it, the Buddha said that the mustard-seed must be taken from a house where no one had lost a child, husband, parent or friend.

Question 2.
Read the story given below. Change the direct speech into reported speech and rewrite the story in the space provided. Use the reporting verbs given above whereever necessary. You can use any other reporting verb you find suitable.
It is said, “It is not how much we have, but how much we enjoy that makes happiness.”
Being happy does not require everything to be good but an eye to see good in everything. One day a crow saw a swan. “This swan is so white,” he thought, “and I am so black. This swan must be the happiest bird in the world.”

The swan replied, “I was feeling that I was the happiest bird around. But I think the parrot is the happiest bird as it has two colours.” The crow then approached the parrot. The parrot said, “I have only two colours, but the peacock has multiple colours.”

The crow then visited a peacock in the zoo. “Dear peacock,” the crow said, “you are so beautiful. Every day, thousands of people come to see you. You are the happiest bird on the planet.”

The peacock said, “I always thought that I was the most beautiful and happy bird on the planet. But I am entrapped in this zoo. I have realised that the crow is the only bird not kept in a cage, and could happily roam everywhere.”
Answer:
It is said that it is not how much we have but how much we enjoy it that makes happiness. Being happy doesnot require everything to be good but an eye to see good in everything. One day a crow saw a swan. He thought to himself that swan was so white and he was so black; she must be the happiest bird in the world.

The swan replied that she was feeling that she was the happiest bird around. But she thought that the parrot was the happiest bird as it had two colours. The crow then approached the parrot. The parrot said that he had only two colours but the peacock had multiple colours.

The crow then visited a peacock in the zoo and said to him that he was very beautiful. Every day, thousands of people came to see him. He was the happiest bird on the planet. The peacock said that he had always thought that he was the most beautiful and happy bird on the planet. But he was entrapped in that zoo. He had realised that the crow was the only bird not kept in cage and could happily roam everywhere.

Editing:

Question 1.
There are some omissions in the paragraph given below. Edit the paragraph, use suitable prepositions and words.
The Wild Geese:
One day, Prince Siddhartha was going the royal gardens on his way the river. A flock wild geese passed overhead. Devadatta, the Prince’s cousin, shot arrow into their midst one of the geese fell. It was wounded and fell just front of Siddhartha. His heart was filled compassion when he saw poor bird bleeding profusely. He lifted it and he drew the arrow very carefully from its body. He took the bird with him. Devadatta sent a messenger claim the bird. But Siddhartha refused to give it. He said that belonged to him because he had saved its life. It did not belong to Devadutta who had tried to kill.
Answer:
The Wild Geese:
One day, Prince Siddhartha was going to the royal gardens on his way along the river. A flock of wild geese passed overhead. Devadatta, the prince’s cousin, shot an arrow into their midst and one of the geese fell. It was wounded and fell just in front of Siddhartha. His heart was filled with compassion when he saw the poor bird bleeding profusely. He lifted it and he drew the arrow out very carefully from its body. He took the bird with him. Devadatta sent a messenger to claim the bird. But Siddhartha refused to give it. He said that it belonged to him because he had saved its life. It did not belong to Devadutta who had tried to kill it.

Listening:

Question 1.
Following is a narrative on Sanchi stupa. Listen to it carefully and answer the questions that follow. You can listen to the recorded narrative or ask your teacher, sibling or friend to read it aloud.
The fascinating and world famous Sanchi stupa is located on a hilltop in Sanchi town, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is one of the most important Buddhist monuments that portrays Buddhist art and sculpture. Starting from the third century BC through the twelfth century AD, it attracts the attention of thousands of visitors round the year including national and foreign tourists, archaeologists, and historians among others.

This stupa is the oldest stone structure in India that was built during the Mauryan period. Originally commissioned in the third century BCE by Emperor Ashoka, this huge hemispherical dome consists of a central chamber. In this chamber, the relics of Lord Buddha are placed. The original construction work of this stupa was supervised by Ashoka. His wife, Devi, was the daughter of a merchant of nearby village, Vidisha. Sanchi was also her birthplace as well as the venue of her and Ashoka’s wedding. Later, four ornamental gateways or toranas facing four directions and a balustrade surrounding the stupa were added in the first century BCE. The Great stupa, at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures ini India and counted among the best conserved ancient; stupas of Central India. It has been enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1989.

The sculptures on the ornamental gateways or toranas consist of decorative illustrations of events encompassing the life of Lord Buddha. These events are explained in the Jataka tales. The tree used here symbolises Lord Buddha. The most striking features regarding the stupa is that Lord Buddha has been depicted symbolically by figures like thrones, wheels, and footprints among others.

(a) Which Buddhist monument is referred to here and what does it portray?
Answer:
Sanchi stupa is referred to here. It portrays Buddhist art and sculpture.

(b) Who are the people who visit this Stupa throughout the year?
Answer:
National and foreign tourists, archaeologists, and historiAnswer:

(c) In which period the Stupa was built, and who commissioned it?
Answer:
The stupa was built during the Mauryan period. It was commissioned in the third century BCE by Emperor Ashoka.

(d) Where is the central chamber in the Stupa? What is kept inside it?
Answer:
The hemispherical dome consists of a central chamber. The relics of Lord Buddha are kept inside it.

(e) What structures were added to the huge hemisphere in first century BCE?
Answer:
Four ornamental gateways or toranas facing four directions and a balustrade surrounding the stupa were added to the huge hemisphere in first centre BCE.

(f) The toranas are decorated with: (Tick the right answer)
(a) stone ornaments ( )
(b) events of Lord Buddha’s life ( )
(c) Lord Buddha’s relics ( )
(d) symbolic depiction of Lord Buddha as throne, wheel, footprints, etc. ( )
Answer:
(a) X
(b) ✓
(c) X
(d) ✓

Speaking:

It is important to know that everyone has some problem or other, and they grieve in unique ways. Your grief is different from those around you. You have experienced a loss or an intense sorrow, especially caused by someone’s death. This can also refer to the loss of physical or cognitive abilities or the loss of something that was routine in your life such as friendship, head boy or head girl, playing for school, etc.

Discuss with your friend and note down:
→ what could be the possible reasons for someone’s grief or sorrow
→ how can they overcome this
Share your feelings and suggestions in the class.
Answer:
The possible reasons for someone’s grief or sorrow are :

  • death of a close friend, relative or a family member
  • failure in examinations
  • failure in job interviews
  • Inability to find a suitable employment
  • financial distress
  • Marital disharmony
  • Physical and mental impairment
  • Lack of basic amenities of life
  • loss of friendship

Ways to overcome the grief arising out of any of the causes listed above :
People must realise and remember that ups and downs are part and parcel of life. Instead of getting depressed and lamenting over losses or failures or any unpleasant situation in life, they must build courage and determination to fight the situation bravely by devising an appropriate solution to their problems. Instead of getting irritated and agitated they must try to contain their emotions. Then only they will be able to think of a feasible solution to combat their problems. They must try to engage themselves in recreational activities that could serve as a good distraction. They should try to think positively and focus on the positive aspects of their life instead of getting disheartened. Listening to some good music, developing a hobby, going for an outing, spending time with family are some of the activities that can invariably help.

Writing:

Question 1.
Write a paragraph on how you can help others who are in grief. You may consider the following points:

  • grief is expressed through a variety of behaviours – observe these
  • reach out to others in their grief, but some people may not want to accept help; some will not share their grief – understand this
  • some others will want to talk about their thoughts and feelings – be a support to them, stand by them
  • let the grieving person know you care for them – be patient
  • focus on what you can do, like holding their hand, etc. – a solace or a consolation

Answer:
We all know that life is full of challenges. There are moments and phases in our lives when we are extremely happy and contended interspersed with the bad phases that shatter us physically, mentally and emotionally. When we are afflicted with grief our behaviour changes drastically. But our behavioural patterns in response to grief or sorrow vary. Grief is known to be expressed through a variety of behaviours. There are some people who become silent with grief and isolate themselves from other people. They become secluded. They prefer to spend some time alone till they learn to control their emotions and get back on track in their lives. In such a scenario it is advisable to give space tq, these people and let them come out of their problems on their own.

On the contrary there are others who crave consolation. They feel better when they are consoled at the time of grief. Their pains and sufferings get alleviated when they can share their thoughts and feelings with others who listen to them patiently. In such a case we should make efforts to provide emotional support to those in need. We should let them know by our warm gestures that we care for them. We should stand by them as long as they need our support. We should try to build in them positivity, confidence, strength through motivation so that they become able to overcome their grief and move ahead in their lives.

Question 2.
Two poems are given in the textbook, First Flight, page 138 – 139, one by Kahlil Gibran, and the other by Rabindra Nath Tagore. Read the poems, discuss in groups of four on what these two poets want to say in their respective poems. Then write the summary of each poem and share it with your classmates.
Answer:
Poem 1. Joy and Sorrow
Summary : Through this poem the poet wants to convey that the more a person does hard work in life, undergoes trials and tribulations, take pains, go through troubles and sufferings, the more he is able to enjoy the happiness, the joys of life. The persons who experience great sorrows in life are able to appreciate the joys in their entirety. He also advocates that, must take joy and sorrow both in stride and accept them as part and parcel of life. Life weaves both joys and sorrows, when one ends other inevitably follows. We must learn to always remain thankful, in our lives, even for the sorrows as they teach us many good virtues and help us grow naturally.

Poem 2:
Summary : Through the poem the poet wants to give the message that when grief is absent from our lives we should not feel thankful for its absense because grief improves us as a person, it brings many positive changes in us. It teaches us many good qualities which polish us and make us a better person. When we successfully manage the period of grief in our life we automatically learn to deal with difficult situations in life. We become more tolerant, patient and emotionally mature. We are better able to appreciate the good in life and view everything in a positive light.

Project:

  • Work in groups of four.
  • Collect Jataka tales (at least six) concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.
  • Read these and rewrite the stories in your own words. You can develop a comic strip too.
  • Make a collage of the stories.
  • Illustrate the stories and display the collage in your class.

Answer:
Jataka Tales:
(1) The Ass in The Lion’s Skin:
Once upon a time an Ass found a Lion’s hide in a jungle left by a hunter. He felt very happy to find it. He thought to himself “if I wear the lion’s skin and roam about in the jungle, all the other animals will be scared of me.”
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 1
The idea of creating fear amongst the animals of the forest amused the Ass. The Ass donned on the Lion’s skin and hid himself in the thick bushes. As any animal passed by he suddenly came rushing out at the animal and scared it a way. All the animals of the jungle developed great dread of him. He felt really delighted to know that. He got so overwhelmed with joy that he couldnot contain his happiness. He started giving out a loud harsh bray. A fox who was running with other animals to escape from the Ass suddenly stopped short. He laughed at the Ass and told him that if he had not been stupid to give out a bray of an Ass, he could have saved himself from a lot of trouble. Soon all other animals gathered around him and beat him black and blue.

(2) The Fox and The Crow:
Once a crow found a piece of meat. He was very happy to find the piece of meat as he was feeling extremely hungry. He flew and perched on a thick branch of a tree to enjoy his meal. A fox who was wandering here and there in search of food saw the crow sitting on the tree with the piece of meat. He wanted to get that piece of meat from him, so he thought of a plan. He started praising the crow that he had heard that the crow had a very melodius voice. He requested the crow to sing a song for him in his beautiful voice.
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 2
The crow felt very pleased to hear the clever fox’s words. He immediately opened his beak to sing. As soon as he did that the piece of meat that he held in his beak fell down. The fox quickly picked it an gobbled it up. The poor crow had to go hungry due to his foolishness.

(3) The Wolf and The Crane:
Once upon a time there lived a clever wolf in a jungle. One day a thick piece of bone of his prey, that he had devoured, got stuck in his mouth. The wolf was in great pain. He felt extremely uncomfortable and grew restless on account of the excruciating pain.
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 3
He started crying for help from his fellow animals. Suddenly he came across a crane who was wading in the waters of a river nearby. He asked for help from the crane. The crane agreed to help the wolf on one condition. She asked the wolf to give her a reward in return of her help. The wolf quickly agreed to the crane’s proposal. The crane very easily moved her long neck down the wolf, mouth and with her sharp beak took out the piece of bone. The wolf got relieved of his pain. The crane then asked for her reward. The clever wolf said to the crane that she had already got her reward as she had successfully took out her neck from a wolfs mouth. The crane was full of regret for helping the clever wolf.

(4) The Turtle Who Could Not Stop Talking:
Once upon a time there lived a Turtle in a river in a forest. Due to extremely hot weather the river, soon, started running dry. All aquatic life in that river started getting seriously affected. The fishes, the plants, the phytoplanktons were dying. The turtle called out his close friends who were the two geese that lived in a river few kilometres away. The turtle requested his friends to take him away with them to their dwelling. His friends agreed to the Turtle’s request. They picked a thick branch of a tree from the ground. Both of them held it from its two ends
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 4
in their beak. They asked the turtle to hold the branch in his mouth from its centre. The turtle did what the geese said. The geese told the turtle that he must not open his mouth while they fly in the air. As the three of them moved through the air, a bunch of naughty boys, who were playing on the ground started making fun of the turtle. They mocked at the Turtle and laughed at the funny sight. The Turtle got irked and to defend himself opened his mouth. His grip on the wooden branch got loose, he fell on the ground ‘and lost his life.

(5) The Cock and the Cat:
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 5
Once a clever cat got hold of a poor cock who was feeding on the grains of corn lying on the ground. The cat held the cock from his neck with his sharp paws. He said to the cock “every morning you disturb the sleep of thousands of people with your sharp loud crow. You must be punished for your bad deeds.” The cock at once said to the cat that he crows early morning only for the benefit of humanity. He wakes them up from their sleep so that they can get on with their day’s work and don’t miss the important task. The wicked cat was determined to eat the cock to satiate his hunger. He said to the cock “you abound in apologies but its breakfast time.” He instantly killed the bird and ate him up.

(6) The Goose That Laid The Golden Egg:
There lived a farmer, with his wife, in a cottage. They had a golden goose that laid a golden egg everyday. The farmer and his wife were very pleased and happy with their life. They would sell the golden eggs and get a huge sum in return. They soon started making a lot of money. One day the farmer and his wife had a discussion with each other. They decided to kill the golden goose.
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 6
They thought to themselves that a goose laying a golden egg everyday must contain great gold lump in its belly. Instead of waiting everyday for just a single golden egg it’s better to cut the goose up and get all the gold at once. They killed the goose. Due to their greed they had to part with their golden goose who gave them riches and joy.

(7) The Crane and The Crab:
Once upon a time there lived a crane near a pond. He had grown old and debilitated. Due to his old age it had become extremely difficult for him to make arrangement for his food. He saw the pond teeming with all sorts of aquatic life including the fishes, crabs, prawns, etc. He thought of a clever idea to feast on the pond dwellers. He sat down near the pond with a sad face. When all the pond animals saw him sitting with a sad face they got curious to know the cause of his sadness. When they inquired him about the same he said that an Astrologer had made a prediction that this pond would soon run dry. All the animals got worried and disappointed to know that. They started discussing amongst themselves as to what could be done to improve the situation.
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 7
They all decided to go to the crane to ask for a solution to their problem. The Crane replied that he could help them. He would take all the animals, one by one, in his beak, to the other pond. All the animals agreed to his plan. The clever crane would pick up one animal daily in his beak to be taken to a deserted place. There he would devour his prey to pieces. One day it was the Crab’s turn. The Crane held the Crab in his beak and flew away on his way to the deserted place. As the Crane was about to reach his destination, the Crab saw the skeletons of the fishes on the rocks below, he immediately sensed the danger and realised that the Crane had brought him there to kill and eat him up like the other animals. He quickly caught hold of his neck with his sharp pincers and crushed him to death.

(8) The Monkey and The Crocodile:
Once upon a time there lived a monkey on a rose apple tree which was situated near the bank of a river. In the river lived a crocodile. To satiate his hunger, the monkey would pluck the rose apples and eat them up. He would also give some of them to the crocodile. Soon the monkey and the crocodile became very good friends. They started spending a lot of time in each other’s company. The crocodile started reaching his home late on daily basis. The crocodile’s wife got really annoyed due to the crocodile’s neglect of duty towards his family. She inquired from the crocodile the reason for his coming home late. The crocodile told his wife about his new friend and even gave her some rose apples, which the monkey had sent for the crocodile’s wife. The Crocodile’s wife found the fruits very delicious and said to her husband “the fruits are so tasty and sweet.
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 10 The Sermon at Benaras 8
The heart of the monkey, who had been eating them daily, must have become really delicious and sweet.” She immediately demanded her husband to bring the monkey along with him so that she could feast on him. The crocodile refused to do so. His wife thought of a clever idea. She lied down on the bed and pretended to be sick. She told her husband that the doctor had said that her condition was critical and she could only get well if she ate a monkey’s heart. The crocodile was in great dilemma. He could not sacrifice his friend’s life for his wife. The crocodile’s wife appealed to his husband’s conscience by reminding him of his responsibilities towards his wife.

The crocodile went near the tree and told the monkey that his wife had invited him for the dinner. The monkey agreed to go with the crocodile to his place. On their way, the crocodile told the monkey that he was taking him to his house not for any dinner but for his wife who wanted to eat his heart. The monkey didn’t take a minute to think of an idea to save his life. He said to the crocodile that he had left his heart on the tree. If he had been told that his wife wanted to eat his heart, he would have brought it along with him. The crocodile asked the monkey to bring back his heart and took a turn to go towards the tree. On reaching near the tree, the monkey quickly made a huge leap to reach his home on the tree. He then said to the Crocodile that he must tell his wife that she had married a fool.

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 9 Madam Rides the Bus

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 9 Madam Rides the Bus

Let’s Begin:

Question 1.
In the story ‘Madam Rides the Bus’, Valli took a bus ride on the bus that she wanted to for last several months. She knew that she had to buy tickets for this. So she saved money suppressing all temptation to buy things like peppermints, toys, balloons, etc., and paid for the ticket.

  • What all exciting things did she see from the bus?
  • Was the excitement the same on her return journey?

Discuss with your classmate and write a paragraph based on your discussion on the above mentioned questions.
Answer:
Valli was an eight year old girl. She was very curious about things. Her favourite pastime was standing in the front doorway of her house and watching what was happening in the street outside. The most fascinating thing of all was the bus that travelled between her village and the nearest town. The sight of the bus, filled each time with a new set of passengers, was a source of unending joy for Valli. She wanted to ride the bus. She saved money to buy the ticket for the ride. She was very excited to finally be able to take a ride. On her journey via the bus she saw a lot of exciting things. She saw palm trees, grassland, distant mountains, bluesky. On her forward journey froin her village to the town she saw a young cow, tail high in the air, running very fast, right in the middle of the road, right in front of the bus.

In an attempt to prevent the animal from being harmed, the driver honked. But the more he honked, the more frightened the animal became and the faster he galloped. That sight threw Valli into fits of laughter. Valli also saw busy public roads with glittering display of clothes and other merchandise. Witnessing all these things filled her heart with extreme joy and excitement. However, the excitement was not the same on her return journey. She was overcome with sadness to see the same cow, that ran in front of the bus on her trip to town, lying dead in a pool of blood. She thought to herself that what had been a lovable creature a while ago suddenly looked so horrible. The memory of the dead cow haunted her, dampening her enthusiasm. She no longer wanted to look outside the window.

Question 2.
Have you undertaken any journey by bicycle, boat, bus, train, or on an elephant back? Share your experience with your friends in the class.
Answer:
During my childhood, I remember taking a lot of fun rides on elephant’s back in various fetes and at several amusement parks that I had been to. All those rides were full of fun and excitement. But during all such rides I had always been accompanied by my mother or my father sitting beside me. Amazed at the enormous size of an elephant, I always had the fear of riding the animal all by myself. On my recent trip to Jaisalmer, I happened to have the opportunity to enjoy an elephant ride. I was really excited at the chance to relive my childhood memories. But at the same time I was little scared by the thought that I will be alone during this experience. I finally made up my mind and decided to go for the ride.

The mahout was all set with his elephant. At first I was bit nervous as I went ahead to mount the animal’s back but the mahout who was an extremely friendly human being helped me shed my fear. He helped me safely land on to the elephant’s back. The elephant now started moving forward on the path laid out in front of him. It was walking with small heavy steps swaying his body a little to the left and to the right every now and then. What started as a little frightening experience turned into a completely remarkable and exciting one. I started enjoying my ride as it progressed. It was a fifteen minute ride around the lush green grasslands. I was feeling very happy with the whole experience. I Look forward to many more such adventures in future.

Reading Comprehension:

Text – I

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
Vishav Driman (65 year old) and her husband Kamal Jeet (69 year old) set out to discover the hidden treasure of Uttarakhand by bicycle. Vishav shares their post-retirement adventure.

Pedalling through the Golden Years:
At a time when our peers were slowing down, relaxing and watching sunsets from their front porch, we found a new passion – cycling. We started out with short daily rides, but found ourselves looking forward to them more and more, so much that we decided to venture further and cover more ground. There were obvious health concerns – the risk of performing a physically strenuous activity at a high altitude, the most obvious of them. But it helped that we had lived in Uttarakhand’s capital, Dehradun, our entire lives, and were therefore acclimatised to the cold winds and narrow winding roads that characterise this beautiful state. We were also familiar with almost all the scenic mountain trails it had to offer.

Short rides extended to longer ones as we started falling deeper in love with not just the sport, but the very idea of discovering a world we had always been a part of, but never had the time to explore. Soon, a simple hobby turned into a project of sorts, and we started participating in cyclotrons and other cycling events being held in the city. Admiration and encouragement poured in from family members, friends and neighbours along the way, sparking a new thought – was it possible to travel across the state on our bicycles ? It seemed daunting at first, but we knew we had to try. Our gear in place, our bikes serviced, and our minds set, we set off on an adventure we would remember for the rest of our lives.

In my opinion, there are very few ways to enjoy and appreciate the beauty of Uttarakhand and cycling is the most thrilling of them all. Sunlight filtering through the trees and a cool breeze gently caressing your faces as you ride, coupled with breathtaking views of sal forests spread like a green cover on the mountains and surrounding valleys, the experience of pedalling across the state is truly inexplicable.

Of the many trails we navigated, there is one that occupies a special place in our hearts. It began from Ghanta Ghar, a popular tourist attraction in Dehradun, it took us through some of the most picturesque locations of the state such as Kimadi, Hathi Paon, Mussoorie and Chaar Dukaan, right up to George Everest point. This 100km ride (approximately) is also one of the few routes in Uttarakhand that encapsulates all the element that one expects while cycling here – steep slopes, sharp curves, endless hills, lush forests, and off-road experiences.
(Source: By Vishav Driman, India Travel 360)

Question 1.
What is the meaning of the expression “when our peers were slowing down, relaxing and watching sunsets from their front porch” and in what context has the author used this ?
Answer:
The author meant to say that all her and her husband’s peers had become physically less active after their retirement. They preferred spending time on activities that suited their age and were least taxing and more relaxing unlike the author and her husband who decided to materialise their passion of cycling.

Question 2.
What made Vishav and her husband confident to venture into Uttarakhand on their bicycles?
Answer:
The author and her husband had lived in Dehradun their entire lives and were acclimatised to the cold winds and narrow winding roads. So they were confident to venture into Uttarakhand on their bicycles.

Question 3.
What was the strong passion that prompted the retired couple to take up this adventurous journey?
Answer:
It was their passion of cycling. They wanted to discover the hidden treasue of Uttarakhand on a bicycle.

Question 4.
What, according to the author, is the most thrilling way to enjoy and appreciate Uttarakhand? Why does she say so?
Answer:
According to the author, the most thrilling way to enjoy and appreciate the beauty of Uttarakhand is cycling. Pedalling across the state one can enjoy all the breathtaking views, Sunlight filtering through the trees and cool breeze caressing the faces as you ride.

Question 5.
Which trail occupies a special place in the couple’s heart?
Answer:
The trail from Ghanta Ghar, a popular tourist attraction in Dehradun right upto George Everest point.

Question 6.
What are the expectations of a cyclist from such an adventurous trip through the mountains? Did Vishav and Kamal Jeet get these experiences from the 100 km ride?
Answer:
The elements that a cyclist expects on an adventurous trip through mountains in Uttarakhand are – steep slopes, sharp curves, endless hills, lush green forests, and off road experiences. Vishav and Kamal Jeet seemed to get all these experiences from the 100 km ride.

Text – II

Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow.
Going Down Hill on a Bicycle, A Boy’s Song
With lifted feet, hands still,
I am poised, and down the hill
Dart, with heedful mind;
The air goes by in a wind.

Swifter and yet more swift,
Till the heart with a mighty lift
Makes the lungs laugh, the throat cry:
“O bird, see; see, bird, I fly.

“Is this, is this your joy ?
O bird, then I, though a boy,
For a golden moment share
Your feathery life in air!”

Say, heart, is there aught like this
In a world that is full of bliss?
‘Tis more than skating, bound
Steel-shod to the level ground.

Speed slackens now, I float
Awhile in my airy boat;
Till, when the wheels scarce crawl,
My feet to the treadles fall.

Alas, that the longest hill
Must end in a vale; but still,
Who climbs with toil, wheresoe’er,
Shall find wings waiting there.
Henry Charles Beeching

Question 1.
The poem describes the __________ of going downhill on a bicycle.
(a) enjoyment
(b) happiness
(c) excitement
(d) satisfaction
Answer:
(c) excitement

Question 2.
Which line(s) depict(s) the freedom like that of a bird that the poet enjoys?
Answer:
The lines which depict the freedom like that of a bird that the poet enjoys are :
“O bird, see; see, bird, I fly.”;
“For a golden moment share
Your feathery life in air!”

Question 3.
Which is the experience the boy is sharing with the bird ? What is the golden moment he is referring to?
Answer:
The blissful experience of going downhill on a bicycle is being shared by the boy with the bird. The golden moment referred to here is his swift bicycle-ride like a bird flying freely in the sky.

Question 4.
What is the meaning of ‘full of bliss’ here? Can the boy find this kind of bliss in the world where he lives?
Answer:
“Full of bliss” here means full of extreme happiness. The boy is having a great time riding on his bicycle in close proximity to nature. He couldn’t have the same experience in the hustle and bustle of the city life.

Question 5.
There is a comparison in the third stanza. What is it?
Answer:
The poet has compared his joyful experience of riding downhill on his bicycle to that of a feathery life of a bird flying about freely in the air without any constraints.

Question 6.
What is the meaning of the last two lines of the poem? Does “toil” mean dedication, determination, and will power to climb the hill? What is the reward here?
Answer:
The poet here means that if one is walling to expend efforts in going down-hill on a bicycle, on a long hill ending in a valley, he invariably draws on his strength and gets success in doing so. It brings forth the reward of successfully accomplishing an uphill task.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Find out the words from the text ‘Madam rides the Bus’ that match with the given meanings.
(а) inquisitive
Cb) intricate
(c) mesmerizing
(d) immense
(e) hardly
Answer:
(a) inquisitive – curious
(b) intricate – elaborate
(c) mesmerizing – fascinating
(d) immense – overwhelming
(e) hardly – scarcely

Grammar:

Question 1.
Read the two sentences given below. The groups of words in italics are phrasal verbs.
This way she picked up various small details.
Valli said, “I am the one to get on.”
The verbs picked and get are combined with up and on respectively. Together they make phrasal verbs.
Now, complete each sentence using a verb from box A and a word from box B (by making a phrasal verb). Use the correct form of the verb wherever necessary.
A – break, drive, get, fill, wake, turn
B – out, down, off, on, in, up
(a) It was evening. She __________ the light.
(b) Do not __________ Ramesh. He was studying late at night yesterday.
(c) The school bus __________ and had to be towed to the garage for repair.
(d) They got in the car and __________.
(e) She hurt herself as she was __________ of the car.
(f) You have to __________ the form yourself.
Answer:
(a) turned on
(b) wake up
(c) broke down
(d) drove off
(e) getting out
(f) fill in

Editing:

Question 1.
Use capital letters and full stops wherever necessary and correct the spelling errors as well, in the following paragraph.
An exciting boat journey gliding crosswise the river from Godkhali jetty will take to a place of incredible mystic beauty of Nature. The sundarbans a unesco World Heritage Site is located at the South eastern tip of the 24 Paraganas district about 110 km from Kolkata it got its name from one of the mangrov plants known as Sundari (Heritiera Minor) Sundrbans are a part of the world’s largest delta, formed by the mighty rivers ganga, brahmaputra and meghna it is one of the most attractive and alluring places remaining on earth, a truly undiscovered paradise the Sundarbans is the largest singl block of tidal, halophytic mangrove forests in the world.

It is the largest tiger reserv and National Park apart from being a unique largest mangrove eco-system of the world, the sundarbns has the world’s largest deltaic mangroove forests and is also home to one of India’s most iconic wildlife species – the royal bengal Ttger. The Sundarbans also serves as a crusial protective barrier for the inhabitents in and around Kolkata against the floods that result from the cyclones which are a regular occurrence. The Sundarbans have also been enlisted amongst the finalists in the New 7 Wonders of Nature.
Answer:
An exciting boat journey gliding crosswise the river from Godkhali Jetty will take to a place of incredible mystic beauty of Nature.
The Sundarbans, a UNESCO World Heritage Site is located at the South eastern tip of the 24 Paraganas district about 110 km from Kolkata. It got its name from one of the mangrove plants known as Sundari (Heritiera Minor). Sundarbans are a part of world’s larges^ delta, formed by the mighty rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna. It is one of the most attractive and alluring places remaining on earth, a truly undiscovered paradise. The Sundarbans is the largest single block of tidal, halophytic mangrove forests in the world. It is the largest tiger reserve and National Park.

Apart from being a unique largest mangrove eco-system of the world, the Sunderbans has the world’s largest deltaic mangrove forests and is also home to one of India’s most iconic wildlife species – the Royal Bengal Tiger. The Sundarbans also serves as a crucial protective barrier for the inhabitants in and around Kolkata against the floods that result from the cyclones which are a regular occurrence. The Sundarbans have also been enlisted amongst the finalists in the New 7 Wonders of Nature.

Listening:

Question 1.
Following is a passage on Mizoram and its people. When one visits this place, one is enchanted by its natural beauty and the vibrant culture of the state. Listen to the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. You can listen to the recorded story or ask your teacher, sibling or friend to read the story aloud.
Mizoram
Once a tourist remarked, “I visited the Eastern States this time – where the people talk in songs and they always dance.”
The eastern region of India is no doubt charmingly novel in many of its features. Mizoram, literally the land of Mizos is an expanse of blue-green hills. Mizoram is broken up lengthwise into five major mountain ranges gradually descending from the south to the north. The hills are rugged and their heights uneven. The name of the state Mizoram is made of two words. ‘Mi’ means human beings, ‘Zo’ means a hill. So, a ‘Mizo’ is a human dweller of a hill; Mizoram means the land of the hill-dwellers. Aizawl is the capital town of the State built in tiers along the hill.

The Mizos have three main festivals – Mim Kut, Chapchar Kut and Pawl Kut. These festivals are associated with their agricultural activities during which they enjoy life by singing and dancing. The Mizos, blessed as they are with a beautiful environment and rich culture, are a vibrant and social people. They love to dance as much as they love to sing. They boast a number of folk and community dances handed down from one generation to the other through the ages. The dances are expressions of the gay, carefree spirit of the Mizos. It should be noted here that these dances are not intended for stage performance, rather they have been evolved for community involvement and participation.
English with a Purpose A Textbook for Class XII (Core Course) NCERT, 2003

Question 1.
The land of Mizo is a large open area of __________. The hills are __________ and __________.
Answer:
hills, blue, green

Question 2.
The state referred here is made of two names __________.
(а) ‘Mi’ means _______________.
(b) ‘Zo’ means _______________.
(c) and Mizoram means _______________.
Answer:
(a) human beings
(b) hill
(c) the land of the hill-dwellers

Question 3.
Which activities are associated with Mizo festivals? How do Mizos enjoy these festivals?
Answer:
Agricultural activities are associated with Mizo festivals. The Mizos enjoy these festivals by singing and dancing.

Question 4.
What are the special features of a Mizo dance?
Answer:
The Mizo dances are expressions of the gay, carefree spirit of the Mizos. These dances are not intended for stage performance, rather they have been evolved for community involvement and participation.

Question 5.
The following statements characterise Mizo people. Tick the one which is not true.
(a) Mizos have a beautiful culture. ( )
(b) They live in a beautiful natural environment. ( )
(c) They are a protective people. ( )
(d) They are a vibrant people. ( )
(e) They love to dance and not so much to sing. ( )
(f) They have a number of community and folk dances. ( )
(g) The community involvement and participation is always there. ( )
Answer:
(a) True
(b) True
(c) False
(d) True
(e) False
(f) True
(g) True

Speaking:

Question 1.
Read Part II of the story ‘Madam Rides the Bus’. There are many conversations between Valli, the conductor, and some elderly people in the bus. Convert the conversations into dialogues between the characters. Many words like commandingly, haughtily, loudly (shouted), smilingly, irritably, curtly etc. have been used in this part. These are the different ways in which the characters have spoken. These show the mood, emotion, and intention of the characters.
Now, write the dialogues and then in groups of three, enact it as a skit in the class.
It was a fine spring afternoon. The bus was just on the verge of leaving the village. Valli, a small eight year old girl, wanted to go on a bus ride.
Valli (loudly): Stop the bus! Stop the bus! Conductor (without looking up): Who is it ? Hurry then!
Valli (loudly): It’s me, I am the one who has to get on the bus.
Conductor (smilingly): Oh. really! (i) __________ Valli (commandingly): I have to __________(ii) Here is __________ (iii) (Conductor stretched out his hand to help her up.) Valli (smartly): I can (iv) __________ Conductor (jokingly): Oh, please (v) __________ (The bus started to move forward with a roar. Valli stood up on the seat to see the outside world clearly.) A voice (anxiously): Listen, child (vi) Valli (haughtily): __________ (vii) Conductor (mimicking her): __________ (x) Valli (steadfastly): Because I __________ (xi) A voice (with concern): If you __________ (xii) Valli (irritably): I’m not __________ (xiii).
Answer:
(i) You don’t say so!:
(ii) go to town;
(iii) my money:
(iv) get on by myself. You don’t have to help me:
(v) don’t be angry with me.:
(vi) “You shouldn’t stand like that. Sit down.”:
(vii) here who is a child. I have paid my thirty paise like everyone else.:
(viii) this is a very grown-up madam. She has paid for her own fare to travel to the city all alone.:
(ix) not a madam and please remember that you have not vet given me my ticket.:
(x) I will remember. Why don’t you sit down when you have paid for a seat.:
(xi) I want to stand.:
(xii) stand on the seat, you may fall and hurt yourself when the bus makes a sharp turn or hits a bump. That is why we want you to sit down child.:
(xiii) a child. I tell you. I am eight years old.

Question 2.
Two communicative tasks are given below. Practice with your partner.
Communicative Task I
(Offering, accepting and refusing help)
Role Play
Chaman : Hello Prem. You look tired. Is there anything I can do to help you ?
Prem : Thank you very much. I think I can manage. I am preparing a chart on Children’s Rights.
Chaman : It’s a lot of work. Let me help you.
Prem : Thank you. But I’ve already collected all the necessary information.
Chaman : I can help you in illustrating some of the rights.
Prem : Oh, can you ? That sounds wonderful.
Chaman : Could you tell me the themes to be illustrated?
Prem : Here you are. I’m really thankful to you.
Chaman : What about children’s duties?
Prem : Oh, yes. It’s a good suggestion. I’ll list their duties also.
Chaman: Thank you.
Pair or Group Work
Write conversations like the one above imagining you are in the classroom. Use the clues given below.

  • Excuse me…
  • Yes ?
  • I wonder if you could lend me our dictionary. I’m doing my class work.
  • I’m sorry. I’m using it right now. May be later.
  • That’s okay. Thanks anyway.

Write similar conversations imagining you are in the following situations: in the kitchen; at the railway station; asking somebody to open the door; in a hospital; in the playground.
Answer:
(1) In a classroom
Rajan: Excuse me!
Rohit: Yes, how can I help you?
Rajan : Can I borrow our dictionary? I need it to complete my classwork.
Rohit : I am sorry I cannot give it to you right now as I am using it. I can give it to you once I finish my work.
Rajan : OK. No problem. Thanks anyway.

(2) In the kitchen
Mother : Could you please help me in preparing the dinner for our guests?
Radha : Sure, mother. What can I help you with?
Mother : Boil the potatoes, that are kept on the kitchen counter, while I knead the dough to make aloo paranthas.
Radha : I will do that but could you please tell me how much water will be needed to boil these potatoes.
Mother : Just remember you only need as much water as is sufficient for the potatoes to be completely submerged in water.
Radha : In how many whistles will the potatoes be completely boiled?
Mother: Just 2 whistles are more than sufficient.

(3) At the railway station
Mohan : When does the next train to Lucknow arrive?
Station Master : Sir, the Lucknow mail was scheduled to arrive at 8 pm. It has been delayed due to some technical issues.
Mohan : How long do I have to wait before it arrives at the station?
Station Master: Sir, it is reportedly be arriving at 8:45 pm.
Mohan : OK. Could you please guide me to the men’s washroom?
Station Master : It is just 2 mins away. Walk straight on this way. You will find it.
Mohan : Thank you very much!!

(4) Asking somebody to open the door
Deepak : Could you please do me a favour?
Anamika: Yes, please.
Deepak : As my hands are occupied, I want you to open this door for me before I can safely put these files in the room.
Anamika : I can do that. But where is the key?
Deepak : You will find it the keyholder on that wall insides.
Anamika : OK give me two minutes. I will fetch it.
Deepak : Thanks a lot for your help.
Anamika : Mention not!!

(5) In a hospital
Doctor : How are you doing ? What is the status of your condition?
Charu : Doctor, the medicines that you had prescribed helped a lot in improving my ailment. The fever and pain has subsided however the scars of the eruptions still persist.
Doctor : Don’t worry about that at all. It will take another week for the scars to be completely gone. I am prescribing an ointment for the same which needs to be applied at bedtime.
Charu : Where can I purchase this ointment from?
Doctor : You will get it easily from any chemist shop. You can also buy it from our pharmacy if you like. It is on the first floor.
Charu : Thanks doctor!

(6) In the playground
Rajan : Which game are we playing today ?
Rohit : Let’s play table tennis. That will be fun.
Rajan : That’s a great idea. But there is one problem.
Rohit : What is it ?
Rajan : We don’t have spare TT rackets available in the sports room. All have been taken as of now.
Rohit: OK don’t worry. Let’s fetch my personal TT rackets from my Locker.
Rajan : One of us must stay here else we might lose this place. The empty court might invite other kids to this area.
Rohit: OK, As you say.
Communicative Task II
(Asking for information, indirect questions and question tags)

Role Play:
Vineet : Could you get me some warm clothes from the cupboard, please ?
Ashima : Are you feeling cold ?
Vineet: It’s cold today, isn’t it ?
Ashima : Yes, it is. I shall have to light the fire soon.
Vineet: Oh, you have coal-fires, do you ?
Ashima : Yes. We don’t have a room heater. You have room heaters, don’t you ?
Vineet: Yes. We do. But coal-fires are nice. They are more comforting than a radiator, aren’t they ?
Ashima : Yes, but there is a lot more work than just switching on a heater. We keep talking about getting room heaters.
Vineet : I suppose coal-fires aren’t very convenient, are they ?
Ashima : They certainly aren’t

Pair or Group work:
Using the above piece as a model, ask for information, make requests and give your opinion regarding – the floods in Chennai, ‘Cyberabad’ (Hyderabad), a celebration in y0ur school, a landslide during the Amarnath yatra, etc.
Answer:
(1) Flood in Chennai
Rita : Do you know in which month of the year 2015 was Chennai struck with flood ?
Ram : Yes, It was in the first week of December 2015.
Rita : Which section of the society was the worst affected by the flood ?
Ram : The people with disabilities of one type or the other suffered the most.
Rita : Which lake was blamed for the city’s flooding ? Do you have any idea ?
Ram: Chembarambakkam Lake.
Rita : It was reported that a bridge went under due to the floods ? I am unable to recollect its name. Do you remember it ?
Ram : Yes, It was the Saidapet bridge, a part of the arterial Anna Salai, that went under as waters rose.

(2) Cyberabad (Hyderabad)
Ram : What is Cyberabad famous for ?
Rita : Cyberabad is the first locality that was developed for the IT sector in the country.
Ram : Who was responsible for the emergence of Cyberabad ?
Rita : Cyberabad is the brain-child of Mr. Chandrababu Naidu who was the chief minister of undivided Andhra Pradesh at the time of its inception in the 90s.
Ram : How much time did it take for the construction of the Cyber Towers (face of Hitech City) ?
Rita : It was completed in a record 14 months.
Ram : I have heard that Cyberabad is home to a convention centre ? Which is it ?
Rita : India’s largest and most technologically advanced convention centre, HICC (Hyderabad International Convention Centre).

(3) A landslide during the Amarnath Yatra
Rita : Have you heard about the recent landslide
that stopped the Amarnath Yatra due to inclement weather in J & K ?
Ram : No, I am not aware of that. Could you please enlighten me ?
Rita : Recently, a landslide triggered by incessant rains blocked the Jammu-Srinagar National highway in Panthiyal and Digdol areas of Ramban district.
Ram : How has it affected the Amarnath Yatris ?
Rita: Movement of yatris on Baltal and Pahalgam tracks towards the cave shrine has been stopped.
Ram : Has the meteorological department given any recent updates on this ?
Rita : The meteorological department has said that moderate to heavy rain may continue for the next 24 hours including on Yatra routes.

(4) A celebration in your school
Renu : Do you know, recently, my school completed its 25 years since its foundation.
Rama : Oh! Thats great! Were there any celebrations ?
Renu : Yes, the celebrations took place, in our school premises last week only on a very grand scale.
Rama : Nice to know that. How was the great occasion celebrated ?
Renu : The event saw the presence of all the teachers and students of our school. It started with a long overwhelming speech from our principal on the school’s achievements over the years.
There were numerous song and dance performances.
Rama : Were you part of any performance ?
Renu : Yes, I gave a dance performance on one of my favourite songs. I received great appreciation from teachers and my fellow students.

Writing:

Question 1.
In the text, seeing Valli travelling alone in the bus, some of the characters showed concerns.
An elderly woman asked, “Are you alone, dear ?”
The Conductor questioned, “Won’t your mother be looking for you ?”
The old woman continued asking, “Is it proper for such a young person to travel alone ? Do you exactly know where you’re going in town ? What’s the street ? What’s the house number ?”
Do you think that the concerns of the elderly lady and the conductor are apt and genuine ? Will you say that it is applicable to young boys as well ? Discuss in groups, make note and then arrange a debate competition. You can consider the following points for discussion or debate. Then write a paragraph considering these issues and give your opinion as well.

  • Girls and boys of Valli’s age can travel alone in a bus or auto rickshaw, etc.
  • Freedom should be given to them to move around.
  • Safety of the young children is of utmost concern.
  • What type of education should be given to them
  • This is a vulnerable age and children are innocent.

Answer:
Valli was a young girl. She was only eight years old. It was unsafe for her to travel all alone. Given the increasing cases of kidnapping, theft, robbery, murder so rampant in today’s time, anything bad could have happened to her. In my opinion, the concerns of the elderly lady and the conductor are apt and genuine. It is applicable to young boys as well, as they too could be easily tricked and manipulated at this tender age.

Debate
Topic : Children should not be allowed to travel alone.

For the motion:
There is no denying the fact that time and situations have changed a lot from when the environment prevailing in the societies, communities was reasonably and significantly less violent. Due to increasing population, growing competition and scarcity of resources to adequately meet the growing needs of the populace, crime and violence has multiplied manifolds. Rage, fury, frustrations are increasingly reported amongst people. They are becoming less and less tolerant of other views. Consequently minor trifles grow into full blown fights. Adults are still better equipped to deal with the societal ills. They are sensible and mature enough to gauge the intentions of others and can avoid getting manipulated.

On the contrary, children are immature and innocent. They lack the wisdom to easily see through deception, lies and ulterior motives of people. They can easily be manipulated and lured into all kinds of wrong activities and bad behaviours. Travelling alone can expose them to the risk of being tortured and harassed by robbers, murderers etc. It is therefore quite mandatory for the parents to teach and educate their children about such societal ills prevailing in the societies thus making them aware and alert. Small kids should invariably be accompanied by their parents and provided with protection and care that they need. Parents should keep a check on the activities of their kids and correct their wrong behaviours. Moral education should be imparted to the kids at school as well as at home to help the kids grow and become responsible citizens of the country.

Against the motion:
Keeping in view the advancements and developments that have been taking place in today’s time it is imperative for the youth of the country to keep pace with it in order to achieve growth and prosperity in their lives. From the very start of their lives children should be given the right kind of education, formally as well as informally. They should be allowed to grow freely and naturally. No unnecessary restrictions and constraints should be put on them. They should be provided with adequate freedom and liberty to explore new things and domains. If we frequently hold them back and prohibit them from experimenting and doing things, we unknowingly instil fear in their minds. Their growth and progress is thus hampered. They consequently suffer physical, emotional, spiritual inadequacies.

Their social status is compromised. They find it- extremely difficult to cope up with the demands and pressures of the new situations that come their way. They are socially and psychologically maladjusted. They suffer a sense of guilt and humiliation due to their insufficiencies. Children should threfore be allowed adequate freedom in their lives to experiment and learn things, at the same time, they should receive necessary assistance and guidance so that they don’t go astray.

Question 2.
You have read that on her return journey, Valli saw the young cow lying dead by the roadside. This young cow was running very fast in front of the bus and had given Valli unbound happiness when she was travelling to the town.
Now, write a paragraph on ‘Should the domestic animals be let loose to walk on the roads freely where the vehicles are plying? Who is responsible for the death of the young cow?
Answer:
Domestic animals should not be let loose to walk on roads:
Nowadays we see and hear about increasing incidents of animal deaths/killing due to road mishaps. They are growing day by day due to negligence on part of the general public, owners of the domestic animals, various governmental agencies. The responsibility for their deaths is shared equally by all of them. Just like human beings, animals too are an important part of the ecosystem. They contribute to the rich fauna of a nation. Domestic or wild, all animals provide with benefits to human beings. The responsibility of their care and protection lies with the citizens of the nation.

Domestic animals like cows, dogs, buffaloes can be commonly seen roaming freely on busy roads. The so called ‘owners’ and ‘care takers’ let them loose to walk on the roads freely instead of carrying out their responsibilities to provide protection and care to them. It is such a sorry state of affairs that we are not ready to provide safety and shelter to these animals but are more than willing to benefit from the animal produce. The owners don’t provide them adequate nutrition nor do they take care of their hygiene. These animals on roads disrupt the smooth flow of traffic and themselves becoming victim of horrendous road accidents. It is the responsibility of the owners, governmental agencies responsible for animal protection to provide safe shelters to these animals. Their needs should be addressed and well being be ensured.

Project:

Question 1.
Read the quick tips for travelling by a bike given below.
When you travel by a bike, Vishav says that the frame and tyres of the bike should be according to the rider’s height. One should carry a hand pump, extra tubes, and a puncture kit for emergency situations. Right accessories such as sweat-resistant gloves, helmets, knee and elbow pads, and a pair of shoes is of utmost importance. It is also necessary to carry essentials like dry food, water, and Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS). A first-aid kit with pain killers, muscle relaxing balms, and band-aids are also advisable.
Now, prepare a list of things that you would like to suggest to people who want to travel by:
(a) a train
(b) a bus
(c) a boat
(d) a motorbike
(e) on foot (for example a trek)
Answer:
List of things that should be carried along during travel by:
(а) a train :

  • Train Ticket
  • Original Identity Proof
  • Food and clothing
  • Medical kit/list-aid kit
  • Gadgets (laptop, mobile phones etc) for entertainment purposes
  • Mobile/laptop chargers

(b) a bus

  • Bus ticket
  • Water bottle
  • Munching items (dry fruits, energy bars etc.)
  • Identity card
  • Mobile phone

(c) a boat

  • Food items
  • Water bottle
  • Medical kit with (pain killers, muscle relaxants, band-aids etc.)
  • inflatable float (for emergencey situations)

(d) a motorbike

  • hand pump
  • puncture kit for emergency situations
  • Accessories (sweat-resistant gloves, helmets, knee and elbow pads, a pair of shoes)
  • Dry food, water, ORS
  • First aid kit with painkillers, muscle relaxants, band-aids etc.

(e) on foot (for example a trek)

  • Back pack/Trek pack
  • Munching items (Dry foods, energy bars, chocolates)
  • Water
  • Medical kit/first aid kit
  • Trek shoes/hiking boots
  • Trek pants/trousers
  • Torchlight/flashlight
  • Sunblockers (Sunscreen lotions)
  • Trek route map

Question 2.
(A) copies of some tickets are given (in Workbook Page 134). Collect some more train tickets, bus tickets, flight tickets, platform tickets, entry tickets for the zoo, cinema hall, metro rail etc.

  • Make a collage.
  • Study the information given in these tickets.
  • Draw a table to enter the information like PNR number, time of departure, time of arrival, confirmed ticket, wait-listed ticket, RAC status in train, seat number, food preferences, price of the ticket, number of passengers, etc.
  • How are these tickets different from each other?

Answer:
Different Types of Entry Tickets
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 9 Madam Rides the Bus 1
(1) Cultural event theatre ticket: Information given in the ticket

Date of event October 1
Time of event Monday Evening
Month of the event October
Name of the theatre The Broadhurst Theatre
Number of person(s) allowed One

(2) Flight ticket : Information given in the ticket

Name of the passenger
Flight Number NY-2355
Place of departure London
Place of Arrival NEW YORk
Gate No A24
Boarding Time 8:12

(3) Cricket Match ticket : Information given

Name of the tournament DLF LEAGUE
Name of the teams
between whom the
match will be played
DELHI DAREDEVILS
VSRAJASTHAN ROYALS
Venue of the Match Ferozshah Kotla
Stadium, New Delhi
Date and year of the Match 19th April, 2008
Day of the Match Saturday
Time 8:30 PM
Gate No 12 and 13

(4) Cinema Hall Ticket for hindi movie : Information given

Ticket No 0368
Date and Year 1 May 1975
Name of the movie DEEWAR
Name of the cinema Hall GALAXY CINEMA
Day and Time of the show Thursday, 3:00 PM
Location of the seat Balcony
Price of the ticket ₹ 3.00
Facilities at the theatre Air conditioned
Validity 1 day
Status Non-Transferable/
Non-Refundable
Signature of the Manager

(5 and 6) Entry Tickets for zoo: Information given

Ticket No 5 Ticket No 6
Name and Location of the zoo VANDALUR,
CHENNAI-48
Sri Chamarajendra Zoological Gardens, Mysuru
Ord# 005538 GAT 16829433246
Name Gate Tickets
CCN# 1682943324
Date 25/10/2014 13/08/2017
Time 10:26 AM 08:44:24 AM
Total Amount Paid ₹ 60 ₹ 545
Break up of the total amount Items Qty. ₹ S.Total 1. Adult 2 30 60 Items Qty ₹ S.Total
1. SCam 1 20 20
2. Adult 3 125 375
3. Child 1 75 75

(7) Railways Journey Cum Reservation Ticket: Information given

PNRNo 261-4851742
Train No 12952
Date of Journey 03-11-2015
Journey in km 993 km
No. of passengers 2 Adults
Ticket No
Location of start and
end of Journey
5BD 73816
New Delhi to Vadodara
Name of the train MUMBAI RAJDHANI
Coach No B3
Seat/Berth 23 SL
Sex and Age of Passengers M 26, M 50
Price of the ticket ₹ 2950
Time and Date of Departure; Month of Journey Time and Date of Arrival; Month of Journey 16:30, 03-11, April
03:31, 04-11, April

(8 and 10) Delhi Transport Corporation A/C Bus ticket and Haryana Roadways Journey ticket: Information given

Ticket No 8 Ticket No 10
Ticket No 69546 497679
Bus No 915 J-15
Name of the Corporation DTC Haryana
Facility Provided Air-conditioned Roadways
Status Non-Transferable
Price of the ticket ₹ 15 ₹ 50

(9) Railways unreserved Journey ticket :
Information given

Passenger helpline No 136
Ticket No 24371148
Date/Month/Year of Journey 25/03/2016
Price of ticket ₹ 40
No. of passengers 1 Adult
Location of the start and end of Journey RANCHI to PURI

(11) Railways Platform ticket : Information given

Ticket No 4941 2308
UTS (Unreserved Ticketing System) 956YAA0178
Price of the ticket ₹ 3
No. of Admission(s) 1 Person
Location of the platform PUNE
Period of Validity 2 hours

(12) Multipackage Ticket: Information given

Name of the events/occassions for which the ticket is valid Free drink, Circus, Cinema, Dinner Party
No. of Admission(s) One
Ticket No 0123456
Seat No 10
Price of the ticket $ 5

(13) A Mumbai Cinema Hall Ticket : Information given

S.No./Ticket No. 082367
Date/Month/Year 5 May 2005
Booking No. (Bk. No.) 330
Name of the Cinema Hall Maratha Mandir
Location and Pin Code Mumbai-400008
Net charge 9.65
Tax payable 4.35
Service charge 4.00
Price of the Ticket ₹ 18

Keeping in view the purposes for which the entry tickets will be used, the details/information provided in each category is different. For example, the flight ticket bears the details like. Name of the passenger, Flight No, Place of departure and arrival etc. While the cultural event theatre ticket provides the information relevant to the event. For example – Date, Time, Place etc. of the event.

(B) Write a paragraph on ‘Why it is essential to travel with a ticket?
Answer:
Whenever we are on a travel via any public mode of transportation like Buses, trains, airplanes etc., it is imperative for us to always carry a ticket. But the trend that can be seen in many small cities, that are not very strict with laws, rules and regulation, is that people choose not to buy tickets and travel free of cost. It is not appropriate behaviour as it reflects a person’s ill mentality and utter lack of responsibility. People miserably fail to realise that the revenue generated through the sale and purchase of tickets will ultimately be spent on the maintenance of the infrastructure that supports and improves such public utilities.

Those who travel without tickets sometimes have to face public humiliation when they are caught travelling without a ticket. The penalities invited on account of such wrong behaviours can be huge and grave. Sometimes the travel tickets bear the name of the person, his place of residence and other contact details. This proves helpful and indispensable when a person gets lost or separated from his/her family. Travelling with a travel ticket also establishes the person as genuine and honest.

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Mijbil the Otter

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Mijbil the Otter

Let’s Begin:

Question 1.
You have read the chapter ‘Mijbil the Otter’. Discuss with your partner the commitment the author had towards Mijbil, and what arrangements he made for his pet. What good care did he take like getting fish, taking it for a walk or exercise, providing things, and space to play etc. Make a list and then share with other friends in the class.
Answer:
→ Aman : How are you, Amir?

→ Amir : I am fine, but you?

→ Aman : I am also very well. Amir, what do you think about the commitment the author had towards Mijbil?

→ Amir : The author, Gravin Maxwell had great commitment towards Mijbil. In fact, owning a pet is a lifetime commitment involving considerable responsibility. It should be kept with utmost care. The decision to acquire one, therefore, should be made by the whole family.

→ Aman : Yes, you are right. The author should obtain an annual licence in accordance with government regulations. Mijbil should have annual vaccination against major dog diseases. The otter should have balanced diet, toilet training, obedience training, regular grooming and bathing. Socialisation of the otter is also very important. In addition to a daily dose of exercise, he should get affection and play also.

→ Amir : What arrangements did the author make for his pet?

→ Aman : Maxwell treated Mijbil like his own son. He took care of him very well :

  • The author gave him lots of toys including marbles, rubber balls, ruber fruits and a terrapin shell to play with.
  • He also noticed Mijbil’s habits and traits.
  • Maxwell encouraged Mijbil to do whatever he liked to do.
  • He took him out for exercise everyday.
  • When Maxwell saw him in blood, he was horrified. He took him out of the box. Mijbil jumped all over and then sat on Maxwell’s lap quietly.
  • He took him to the bath tub to play in the water knowing the fascination of Otters with water.
  • On the aircraft, Maxwell was very grateful to the air-hostess who suggested him to take Mijbil out to his box. Mijbil’s affection for Maxwell also shows that he was a good master.
  • He was happy to see him go wild with joy to see water.
  • He enjoyed watching him play and noticed his antics.

Question 2.
Find out which illustrations (Page 100) will go with your list.
Answer:
All the first four illustrations will go with our list.

Question 3.
Mijbil is an active animal who shows many emotions. Refer to the chapter and complete the following Table.
Answer:

What Mijbil does How Mijbil feels
1. Plunges, rolls in water 1. Goes wild with joy.
2. Opens the water tap. 2. Reveals his intelligence and feels happy
3. Tries to come out of the box. 3. Gets injured and feels exhausted.
4. Invents a game of his own with the ping- pong ball. 4. Feels amused.
5. Sleeps on Maxwell’s bed 5. Feels love for Maxwell.
6. Disappears on the plane, there are shrieks, shrill cries and shouts all around by the passengers. 6. Gets scared and returns to Maxwell.

Reading Comprehension:

Text I
The following is a story of a baby Civet cat that fell from a tree and was raised by humans. It is a true story from Assam written by Rommel Shunmugam who is a conservation photographer. Through his photo stories, he seeks to inculcate in children a love for nature and wildlife.

Civet cats are found in most parts of India. They are also called toddy cats. They live on palm trees and love to drink the sweet sap, which is collected by toddy tappers to make wine! Dharini and his family rescues and rehabilitates wild animals. These are mostly babies or animals that cannot look after themselves.

Baby Bhakat:
Hi! My name is Bhakat. I am a baby Civet cat. I am three month old. Shhh! I am taking a nap with my brothers. Yes, I live in a family of humans. They treat me like their own Baby!

My home is a little thatched hut by a river in a small village in Assam. The hut has an earthen floor and mud-splattered walls. Its doors are always open. I come and go as I please! Mama takes care of all three of us! Her name is Anjali. She cooks, cleans and plays with me. I secretly think she loves me the most. She lets me be real naughty!

Mama is about to make brunch! She is making roti and vegetables. I don’t like vegetables, but I like fruits. I love meat. I am omnivorous. Mama always feeds me before anyone else! I love things dipped in milk. They are yummy!

The man of the house is Dharini. If not for him, I would not be alive today! My civet mother built a nest for me in a very tall coconut tree. One night I slipped and fell to the ground! When villagers found me they took me to Dharini. Dharini loves animals. I began to live in his home. I was very small. I could not walk. I ate and slept a lot!

Do you know why my eyes are so large ? That’s because I am a nocturnal animal. I sleep in the day and am active in the night. My large eyes help me see better in the dark! I also have a very long tail! It helps me balance on tree-tops and branches. I mostly live on trees, though I do come down to the ground. Animals like me are called arboreal!

Inside Dharini’s house, I always snooze in the rafters. I like being high up; it reminds me of trees! One day I woke up to find a strange sight, Dharini’s house was filling with water! In the night, the river behind the house started overflowing its banks! Inside everything was helter-skelter. Things were piled on top of one another! The monsoon had arrived!

Dharini and Anjali carried us babies outside the house! There was water everywhere and it was very muddy! But the sun was out and it was not raining! I stayed high on the fence and made sure even my long tail did not get wet! Dharini went to pick snails.

Snails had climbed branches and walls to escape drowning in the flood! Every gardener knows that snails eat plants. By eating snails, I ensure that they do not overrun your garden. I maintain the balance of life in nature!

When it floods, you find fish everywhere! Dharini cast his net in the garden and began catching fishes. They are kept in a pan of water to keep them alive and fresh to eat!

Montu, my brother, tried to be naughty! He caught me and threatened to dip me in water! He got a scolding from Dharini. I hate to be in water! Back inside the house, it is time for me to play with Mama! I shall rest awhile and then be up again at night. Mama always leaves a midnight snack by the lantern!
Rommel Shunmugam

Now read the following questions and tick the right answer.
Question 1.
Dharini ______.
(a) is the land owner
(b) loves animals
(c) is a gardener
(d) is father of Bhakat
Answer:
(b) loves animals

Question 2.
Civet cats are also called ________ .
(a) Baby cats
(b) Night cats
(c) Toddy cats
(d) Snail cats
Answer:
(c) Toddy cats

Question 3.
Baby Bhakat loves to eat ________.
(a) roti
(b) vegetables
(c) fruits
(d) meat
Answer:
(d) meat

Question 4.
Baby Bhakat hates to ________.
(a) eat snails
(b) be in water
(c) play with Mama
(d) sleep in the rafter
Answer:
(b) be in water

Question 5.
The home for the Bhakat is ________.
(a) a garden near a river
(b) the roof of the little hut
(c) a little hut by a river
(d) the nest in a coconut tree
Answer:
(c) a little hut by a river

Question 6.
Tick the statement which is not true.
(а) Dharani and Anjali treat Bhakat as their own baby.
(c) Anjali plays with Bhakat and lets it be naughty.
(d) Anjali feeds Bhakat before anyone else.
Answer:
(b) They keep the door closed to keep Bhakat safe.

Text II:
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
It’s not easy having Elephants in your backyard. Around the world, as communities expand, and natural wild places are reduced, people and wildlife are increasingly coming into conflict over living space and food.

It might be baboons in Namibia attacking young goats or elephants in Nepal eating crops or European bears and wolves killing livestock. The problem is universal, affects rich and poor, and is bad news for all concerned.

The impacts are often huge. People lose their crops and livestock (and therefore a source of income and food security), property, and sometimes their lives – even a severe injury caused by wildlife can result in a loss of livelihood. The animals, some of which are already threatened or even endangered, are sometimes killed in retaliation or to prevent future conflicts.

Human-wildlife conflict is happening more and more, affecting a lot of different species. The effects of climate change will probably make the problem worse.

How we are tackling human-wildlife conflict:
The solutions are often specific to the wildlife or area concerned, and are often creative and simple – for instance planting a barrier of crops that repel the animals (elephants and some other wildlife don’t like chilli, for example).
An important aspect of the work is that it benefits both the animals and local people and actively involves the communities concerned (in the case of chilli, it can be sold to increase income). It’s about finding solutions that lead to mutually beneficial coexistence.

The work has also often led to people being more enthusiastic and supportive of conservation, and has demonstrated that people can live alongside wildlife while developing sustainable livelihoods.
(Source: https://www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/ area-of-work/preventing-human-wildlife-conflict)

Question 1.
What happens when communities expand?
Answer:
When communities expand, natural wild places are reduced. As a result, people and wildlife are increasingly coming into conflict over living space and food. For example, baboons in Namibia attack young goats, elephants in Nepal eat crops, European bears and wolves kill livestock. This affects the rich and the poor and is bad news for all concerned.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of “impact” in the passage? How it is affecting people and their life?
Answer:
(i) The meaning of “impact” in the passage is a marked effect.

(ii) It is affecting people and their life to a great extent. People lose their crops and livestock, property, and sometimes their lives. Even a severe injury caused by wildlife can result in a loss of livelihood. The animals, some of which are already threatened or even endangered, are sometimes killed in retaliation or to prevent future conflicts.

Question 3.
What will make the human-wildlife conflict more intense?
Answer:
The effects of climate change will make the human-wildlife conflict more intense. Such conflict is happening more and more, affecting a lot of different species. The impacts are often huge. People lose their crops and livestock, property and sometimes their lives. In contrast, sometimes even endangered animals are killed in retaliation.

Question 4.
The passage talks about one solution to tackle human-wildlife conflict. What is it?
Answer:
The solution to tackle human wildlife conflict that the passage talks about is to plant a barrier of crops that repel the animals. For example, elephants and some other wildlife don’t like chilli. Although, the solutions of such conflicts are often specific to the wildlife or area concerned, and are often creative and simple. It is about finding solutions that lead to mutually beneficial co-existence.

Question 5.
These types of creative and simple solutions lead to –
(Tick the statement(s) which is/are not true.)
(a) active community involvement.
(b) generate income naturally.
(c) mutually beneficial coexistence.
(d) people living with wildlife happily.
(e) people being more enthusiastic and supportive of conservation
(f) developing sustainable livelihood.
Answer:
(b) generate income naturally.

Text III:
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
Animal rights:
People who support animal rights recognise that all animals have an inherent worth, a value completely separate from their usefulness to humans. Every being with a will to live has the right to live free from exploitation and suffering.

All animals have the ability to suffer in the same way and to the same degree that humans do. They feel pain, pleasure, fear, frustration, loneliness, and familial love. Whenever we consider doing something that would interfere with their needs, we are morally obligated to take them into account.

People often ask if animal rights mean that animals should have the right to vote or drive a car. Of course, that would be silly because those aren’t rights that would benefit animals. But animals have the right not to suffer at the hands of humans and to live their lives free from suffering and exploitation because they have an interest in doing so. That is the difference between equal consideration and equal treatment.

Almost everyone cares about animals in some context, whether it’s a beloved family companion, an irresistibly cute kitten or a majestic wild animal seen in a documentary. After all, we each have some built- in capacity for empathy and compassion, as can be seen from the lengths that children often go to in order to help animals.

Logically and morally, there is no reason to differentiate in the way we treat the animals we share our homes with and those who are farmed for food. They are all individuals, with the same capacity to feel pain and fear. Animal rights help us to look past the arbitrary distinctions between different species, to rediscover our innate compassion, and to respect all animals equally.

Anyone who cares about animals can start putting these principles into practice every single day with the food they eat, the clothes they wear, and the products they buy. These choices are a form of non¬violent protest that makes a real difference both by reducing the profits of corporations that harm or kill animals and by creating a growing market for cruelty- free food, fashion, services, and entertainment.
(Source: https://www.peta.org.uk/action)

Question 1.
What do the people who support animal rights recognise?
Answer:
The people who support animal rights recognise that all animals have an inherent worth, a value completely separate from their usefulness to humans. They hold that every being with a will to live has the right to live free from exploitation and suffering.

Question 2.
As human beings, what are our moral obligations towards animals?
Answer:
As human beings, our moral obligations towards animals are to respect their right to live free from exploitation and suffering. All animals have the ability to suffer in the same way and ft he same degree that humans do. They feel pain, pleasure, fear, frustration, loneliness, and familial love. Whenever we consider doing something that would interfere with their needs, we are morally obliged to take them into account.

Question 3.
What is the right of animals as mentioned in paragraph three?
Answer:
The right of animals as mentioned in paragraph three is not to suffer at the hands of humans and to live their lives free from suffering and exploitation because they have an interest in doing so. They have the right of equal consideration and equal treatment.

Question 4.
Why should we rediscover our empathy, compassion, and respect for animals?
Answer:
We should rediscover our empathy, compassion, and respect for all animals equally because logically and morally, there is no reason to differentiate in the way we treat the animals we share our homes with and those who are farmed for food. They are all individuals, with the same capacity to feel pain and fear. In fact, all of us have some built-in capacity for empathy and compassion : For example, it can be seen that children often go in order to help animals. We should keep in mind the animal rights to rediscover our innate compassion and respect for animals.

Question 5.
Anyone who cares about animals can start putting “these principles” into practice. What are “these principles”?
Answer:
These principles are as follows:

  • We should respect the animal right-not to suffer at the hands of humans and to live their lives free from suffering and exploitation.
  • We should not have arbitrary distinctions between different species.
  • We should not eat the food that come by killing the animals i.e., meat, fish, etc.
  • We should not wear the clothes made up of animal skin and other organs.
  • We should not buy the products that are responsible for cruelty to animals.

Adopting those choices would be a form of non-violent protest that would bring two positive results :

  • This would reduce the profits of corporations that harm or kill animals.
  • Also, this would create a growing market for cruelty-free food, fashion, services, and entertainment.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
The following words are from the text you have read. The synonyms for each word are given. Find the odd one out.
(a) serious, grave, ridiculous, stern, solemn
(b) suitable, unfitting, appropriate, right, proper
(c) hostile, unfriendly, averse, agreeable, unreceptive
(d) peaceful, harmonious, quiet, serene, violent
(e) appalling, atrocious, wonderful, awful, dreadful
Answer:
(a) ridiculous
(b) unfitting
(c) agreeable
(d) violent
(e) wonderful

Question 2.
Look at the two sentences given below. These are from the text. Look at the words in italics. These are used as verbs. They can be used as nouns as well.
(a) By then it had crossed my mind…
(b) Camusfearna, ringed by water…
The noun forms of these two verbs are ‘cross’ and ‘ring’.
(a) I’ve put a cross on the map to show where the river Mahanadi is.
(b) She put the ring back in the jewelery box.
A list of words is given below. Make sentences using these words as verb and noun.
(c) Book ______________________
(d) Mail ______________________
(e) Cable ______________________
(f) Sack ______________________
(g) End ______________________
(h) Head ______________________
(i) Colour ______________________
(j) Lead ______________________
Answer:
(c) Book

  • Verb : I have booked a railway ticket today.
  • Noun : I am writing a book on Social Science.

(d) Mail

  • Verb : Sohan mailed a letter to his father.
  • Noun : I have to collect my mail from Krishna Nagar Post Office.

(e) Cable

  • Verb : In order to know about his mail, Maxwell cabled to England.
  • Noun : The cable is used for transmitting electricity or tele communication signals.

(f) Sack

  • Verb : The corrupt officials must be sacked on the spot.
  • Noun : There are 50 sacks full of rice in the godown.

(g) End

  • Verb : The beautiful phase of Vijay Malya’s life has ended.
  • Noun : An all party meeting was called for an end to violence.

(h) Head

  • Verb : The meeting was headed by the Principal of my college.
  • Noun : Mr. Sinha is the head of his family.

(i) Colour

  • Verb : She coloured her hair with a selection of blonde and brown shades.
  • Noun : You should change the colour of your door by painting.

(j) Lead

  • Verb : This road leads to the railway station.
  • Noun : India is now taking the lead in environmental policies.

Grammar:

Question 1.
You have read about “noun modifiers” in the chapter ‘Mijbil the Otter’, page 112. These give more information about a noun, hence are called noun modifiers. These are adjectives or adjective phrases. Let us look at more of the adjective phrases and their usage.
Example : I went to a party. It was a Christmas party. The party was lovely.
I went to a lovely Christmas party.
Now, join the sentences given below and make a simple sentence with an adjective phrase.
(a) I bought a Maruti car. The colour is blue. It is sporty.
I bought _____________ car.

(b) He made a speech. The speech was short. The speech was interesting.
He made _____________ speech.

(c) Suresh went to a house. It was decorated beautifully.
Suresh went _____________ house.

(d) She bought a dress. It is a designer one but frightfully expensive.
She bought _____________ dress.

(e) The food was tasty. It was prepared quickly. food was tasty.
Answer:
(a) a sporty blue colour Maruti
(b) an interesting short
(c) to a beautifully decorated
(d) a frightfully expensive designer
(e) Quickly prepared

Question 2.
Use the correct form of the word given in the bracket and fill in the blanks. One has been done for you.
His behaviour was disappointing. I expected him to be more polite. People present there were disappointed. (disappoint)
(а) The death of 40 jawans was ________. We were ________ when we heard the news, (shock)
(b) I met an ________ person in the party. He was ________ in tasting each and every dish kept in the food counter, (interest:)
(c) Ravi is not very ________ to visit new places. He tells his friends no place is more ________ compared to his village in Ranikhet. (excite)
(d) She got a new guest in her house. She was ________ by his handling the pups. His voice was more ________ when he was calling these pups near him. (amuse)
(e) It is very humid in the Summers. I don’t like this weather. This weather is ________. I am ________ as I sweat a lot. Children are ________ as they can’t play outside, (disgust)
Answer:
(a) shocking, shocked
(b) interesting, interested
(c) excited, exciting
(d) amused, amusing
(e) disgusting, disgusted, disgusted

Question 3.
You have read about how to describe a repeated action in the past by using ‘would’ or ‘used to’. Go through the rules again and fill in the blanks with ‘would’ or ‘used to’ as appropriate.
(a) Every day she ________ come home from work with a rose to give to her mother.
(b) I ________ lend him my books when he was preparing for his examination.
(c) He ________ visit his friend in the hospital every evening.
(d) Each time I called him he ________ come immediately.
(e) During his hostel life, he ________ eat all kinds of food without grumbling.
(f) When I was a child, I ________ believe that fire flies were small fire balls.
Answer:
(a) would
(b) used to
(c) would
(d) would
(e) used to
(f) used to

Editing:

Question 1.
Use capital letters, full-stops, commas, and inverted commas wherever necessary in the following paragraph.
the land of the Bisnois in rajasthan is known for conservation of wildlife, it is a living religion to the. Bishnois. It is said This is probably only one religion in the world that is founded on the principles of conserving nature. It has followers over ten lakhs. For these many people protection of living beings is a way of life for the ishnois tree is sacred and their empathy and love extend to all living beings on earth. They protect the ecosystem that surrounds the village which is a safe haven for blackbucks chinkaras vultures great Indian bustards peacocks etc they protect them from poachers and provide them plenty vegetation they keep water in the stone vessels for the animals to drink from, and hang water filled pots from the branches for the birds.
Answer:
The land of the Bishnois in Rajasthan is known for Conservation of Wildlife. It is a living religion to the Bishnois. It is said, “This is probably only one religion in the world that is founded on the principles of Conserving nature”. It has followers over ten lakhs. For these many people, protection of living beings is a way of life. For the Bishnois, tree is sacred and their empathy and love extend to all living beings on earth. They protect the ecosystem that surrounds the village which is a safe haven for blackbucks, chinkaras, vultures, great Indian bustards, peacocks, etc. They protect them from poachers and provide them with plenty of vegetation. They keep water in the stone vessels for the animals to drink from, and hang water filled pots from the branches for the birds.

Question 2.
Parts of sentences are given below. Rearrange the parts and write meaningful sentences in the space provided. Use appropriate punctuation marks.
(a) a town in iraq/ in large numbers/ otters are found/ in the marshes near Basra.
(b) to the market/ we were fatigued/ having walked so far/ on account of
(c) 40 paramilitary personnel/ the suicide car/ pulwana district killed/ bombing in
(d) india’s first semi-high speed train,/ was flagged off with excitement/ the inaugural trip of! Vande Bharat Express,
(e) the eastern hemisphere / the longer than all / the nile is said to be / other rivers in
Answer:
(a) In the marshes near Basra, a town in Iraq, Otters are found in large numbers.
(b) On account of having walked so far to the market, we were fatigued.
(c) The suicide car bombing in Pulwana district, killed 40 paramilitary personnel.
(d) The inaugural trip of India’s first semi-high speed train, Vande Bharat Express was flagged off.
(e) The Nile is said to be longer than all other rivers in the eastern hemisphere.

Listening:

Question 1.
Following is a story of Gangaram, a 130 year old crocodile, who died in a Chhattisgarh village. Listen to the story carefully and answer the questions that follow. You can listen to the recorded story or ask your teacher, sibling or friend to read the story aloud.
The incident took place in Bawamohatra, a village in Bemetra district of Chhattisgarh. The residents of Bawamohatra gathered near the community pond and started weeping after they saw that the crocodile had died. The villagers were emotionally attached to the reptile and were heartbroken after his death. About 500 people of the small village attended the last rites of their beloved crocodile, Gangaram. The over three-metre long crocodile was buried in Chhattisgarh’s Bawamohatra village after his last rites were performed by the villagers. A forest department official estimated that the crocodile was 130 years old. The crocodile was carried to its funeral on a tractor decorated with flowers and garlands. The villagers say Gangaram was friendly.

Even the kids of the village could swim around him. He had never harmed or attacked anyone. He was not a crocodile but a friend and a divine creature for them, who was worshipped in this village. Some say that he would even eat rice and dal which was served by the villagers and kids. He was very understanding and if he saw anyone swimming near him, he used to go to the other side of the pond. Villagers used to identify themselves with the crocodile as people used to call this village – Magarmachha vala gaaon, the Crocodile’s village. In fact, the villagers now wish to build a statue of Gangaram near the pond to remember their friend, who got the village a new name. It may be weird, but it could be an example of how humans and animals can coexist without harming each other.

Question 1.
Why did the residents gather near the village pond?
Answer:
The residents gathered near the village pond to see their beloved crocodile, Gangaram.

Question 2.
Why were the villagers crying?
Answer:
The villagers were crying to see the dead crocodile. The villagers were emotionally attached to the reptile and were heartbroken after his death.

Question 3.
Who was Gangaram?
Answer:
Gangaram was a crocodile.

Question 4.
How big was he?
Answer:
He was three-metre long

Question 5.
How old was he?
Answer:
He was 130 years old.

Question 6.
Give three reasons to justify Gangaram was friendly:
(а) Children could ___________.
(b) Gangaram never ___________.
(c) Gangaram was very ___________.
Answer:
(a) Children could swim around him.
(b) Gangaram never harmed or attacked anyone.
(c) Gangaram was very understanding.

Question 7.
What was the new name given to the village and why?
Answer:

  • “Magarmachha vala gaaon”, “the crocodile’s village” was the new name given to the village.
  • The crocodile was an example of how humans and animals can co-exist without harming each other.

Question 8.
What will the villagers do to remember their friends?
Answer:
The villagers will build a statue of Gangaram near the pond to remember their friend.

Speaking:

Question 1.
We all have seen hand puppets on YouTube or during story telling sessions. Try to make one hand puppet of an Otter. The situation is: Mijbil playing with water and spilling water every where. Write a few dialogues between Mijbil and Maxwell. Be the characters and exchange dialogues.
Maxwell : Oh! Mijbil, what have you done ?
Mijbil : He, he ______________
Maxwell : ___________
Mijbil : ___________
Maxwel : ___________
Mijbil : ___________
Answer:
Mijbil: he did this, I did nothing.
Maxwell : Don’t lie me. I know you very well.
Mijbil : Hey! Max (Maxwell) believe me.
Maxwel : Believe my foot.
Mijbil : I swear Max. That’s not my fault and please don’t shout at me like this.

Question 2.
You have read a story ‘The Bond of Love’ in the class IX textbook, Beehive. In this story, the author talks about a sloth bear that his wife kept as a pet. The sloth bear was sent to the Zoo when it became too big to be kept at home. Now, discuss in a group of four, the following points, list views, and then share in the class.
(a) Keeping any big wild animal, like the sloth ‘ bears, at home.
(b) Keeping unusual pets for pleasure
(c) Using tigers, lions, dancing bears in circus
(d) Making the monkeys dance, cock fighting, bull fighting for amusement
Answer:
Vanshika : No, I am not interested to keep any big wild animal, like the sloth bears, at home or keeping unusual pets for pleasure. Why?
Firstly, wild animals belong to wilderness and would never naturally interact with humans. They have innate fear of humans and will not choose to be near them. Being in captivity and available for petting puts enormous stress on any wild animal whose instinct would be to run away. Circus or zoos can never replicate what the wild provides for these animals no matter how hard they try to or how much money they spend.
They are very often subjected to cruel and inhumane methods in order to make them tame enough for the public to handle.

Daksh: Petting wild animals is BAD FOR THEM. In the long run,it will only result in their death. Habituating, feeding and petting wildlife WILL kill it.

Eklavyh : Some people make money by making the monkeys dance, cock fight, bull fight for amusement. This is wrong and they should not be treated as such.

Pari : Wildlife, it belongs to the wild… lets help keep it there.

Writing:

Question 1.
Based on the above points, write a paragraph giving your points of view. You can highlight on the loss of natural habitat, cruelty, loss of freedom etc.
Answer:
Love is Mutual:
‘Love is mutual’. This fact is represented by the story “The Bond of Love’ in the class-EX textbook. The chapter signifies the mutual love and affection between the author’s wife and the pet, Bruno. Animals also feel the pleasure of love and pain of separation. They can and do understand the love and affection showered upon them. They even feel miserable when separated from their loved ones irrespective of the fact whether they are the fellow animals or even humans. However, now-a-days they are becoming the victim of human cruelty. Due to industrialisation and urbanisation their natural habitat is decreasing continuously. Moreover, we often come across the scenes related to cruelty to animals.

Animals are treated cruelly for various needs. As we walk on the road, sometimes we find bullock carts driven by oxen, donkeys carrying burdens, bears staging road shows, monkeys dancing to the beats of his master’s sticks and even pythons swerving to the tunes of his master. The animals are, thus, used for earning a living. Animal testing is another problem. This is the use of animals in biological, medical and psychological studies. Medical researchers use many animals to study the causes and effects of animals vivisection i.e., cutting a living thing is the most controversial issue of animal rights. Right now, millions of mice, rats, rabbits, cats, dogs, and other animals are locked inside cold cages in labs across the country.

They suffer in pain, ache with loneliness and long to be free. After going through this terrible life, almost all of these animals are killed. At many places especially in villages, animals are used to carry goods from one place to another in carts. Moreover, we can see pitiable condition of animals in the zoo. There are filthy and sticky places where animals and birds are kept. The cages are in very bad conditions. Besides, the animals seem very lethargic, weak and restless as they are not fairly fed. Loss of freedom is also a matter of serious concern to animals. Confinement takes away the liberty of the confined, be it a human being or an animal. Therefore, I feel concerned due to the cruel treatment meted out to animals. Some stern steps must be taken to improve the condition of animals. We should stop encouraging such cruelties to animals.

Question 2.
‘Read these quotations and write one paragraph in the context of ‘Animal Rights’.
(a) “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.” – Mahatma Gandhi
(b) When it comes to pain, love, joy, loneliness and fear, a rat is a pig is a dog is a boy. Each one values his or her life and fights the knife.” – PETA founder, Ingrid E. Newkirk
Answer:
Animal Rights:
We often come across the scenes related to cruelty to animals. Animals are treated cruelly for various needs. As we walk on the road, we often see that they are used for earning a living. People fail to understand that the voiceless animals are living beings who feel the same amount of pain and sadness as humans, and in some cases, even more whereas our culture, religions, traditions advocate non-violence and compassion towards animals. Therefore, it is an urgent need to implement animal rights honestly. India’s first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, criminalizes cruelty to animals. The 1960 law also created the Animal Welfare Board of India. Moreover, subsequent laws have placed many regulations and restrictions to safeguard animals.

According to Article 51A(g), it is the fundamental duty of every citizen of India to have compassion for all living creatures. Similarly, as per the law of the land, to kill or maim any animal, including stray animals is a punishable offence. Abandoning any animal for any reason can land a person in prison for up to three months. Neglecting an animal by denying her sufficient food, water, shelter and exercise or by keeping him chained/ confined for long hours is a punishable offence. Animal sacrifice is illegal in every part of the country.

Bears, monkeys, tigers, panthers, lions and bulls are prohibited from being trained and used for entertainment purposes, either in circuses or streets. Organising of or participating in or inciting any animal fight is a cognizable offence. Cosmetics tested on animals and the impact of cosmetics tested on animals is banned. Every animal lover should know these laws to prevent cruel treatment meted out to animals. Mahatma Gandhi has rightly said, “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.”

Project:

Question 1.
In a group of four, conduct research on the following question and write a report on the findings.
What animals can be exported or imported under law ? (Customs seizures show a variety of animals from reptiles, lizards, leopards to pythons, venomous reptile. These are carried in tiny suitcases and smuggled.)
Answer:
The livestock definition covers mules, asses,’ bulls, calves, bullocks, buffaloes, goats, swine, dogs, cats, poultry, parrots, pigeons, canaries, fishes and other seafood, etc. that can be exported or imported under the law. However, apart from regular procedures and documentation to import goods, the special provisions are also required to import live animals. The exporters and importers have to follow specific requirements of each importing country to import live animals from foreign country. India’s live animal exports mainly include live goat and sheep. It accounts for 1.5% of global live animals exports. Also, it is the largest exporter of buffalo meat but not exporter of live buffalo. India exports live animals mostly to Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kenya, Maldives, Sri Lanka, etc. Due to various restrictions on meat or processed meat, the industry is looking towards live animals.

The culture and several religious traditions of India advocate non-violence and compassion towards animals. For example, the first scriptures of Hinduism, the Vedas teach us ahimsa or non-violence towards all living beings. In Hinduism, killing an animal is regarded as a violation of ahimsa and causes bad Karma. Similarly, ahimsa is the central teaching of Jainism. Jains believe in the sanctity of all life. So, they practise strict vegetarianism. Many of them go to great lengths even to avoid harming insects. Buddhism teachings also include ahimsa. Buddhism teaches vegetarianism. Buddhists even practise life release in which animals destined for slaughter are purchased and released to the wild.

Under the British rule, animal experimentation began in India in the 1960s. The British began introducing new drugs to the colony. Moved by the suffering of Indian strays and drought animals, the first Indian Society for the Prevention of cruelty to Animals (SPCA) was founded in 1861 in Calcutta (now, Kolkata) by C. Grant. Mahatma Gandhi also advocated vegetarianism. He argued for abstinence from meat on ethical grounds.

India’s first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of cruelty to Animals Act, was passed in 1960. The Act criminalizes cruelty to animals. Although, exceptions are made for the treatment of animals used for food and scientific experiments.

India has passed a number of animal welfare reforms since 1960. Subsequent laws have placed regulations and restrictions on the use of drought animals, the use of performing animals, animal transport, animal slaughter, and animal experimentation.

The import and ownership of foreign animals are restricted under the Export-Import Policy which governs all imports and exports in our country. This has elaborate procedures and permissions required for the import of any live animal which is not covered under the definition of “livestock” under Livestock Importation Act, 1898. The illegal trade of wildlife is prohibited under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The Act aims at effectively protecting the wildlife of this country and to control poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivatives. In fact, International trade in all wildlife species of India is regulated collectively through the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, Export-Import Policy (EXIM Policy) under the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act of 1992 and Customs Act of 1962.

The Wild Life Protection Act provides for the prohibition of hunting of protected species, strict regulation of their possession transport and trade and the creation and management of protected areas. However, in spite of all legal provisions, exotic animal trade is thriving in India. People shell out large sums of money for pocket monkeys from Brazil, black pond turtles from Southern Asia, iguanas from South America and the Caribbean and fish from the coral reefs of Indonesia. These wild animals are illegally transported, cruelly bred and then sold at steep rates in Mumbai, Pune, Bengaluru and Delhi.

Although, sufficient legal backing is provided for the scheduled animals which are indigenous species native to India and South Asia but non-indigenous animals are also imported illegally into India on a large scale. In fact, there is lack of legislation for the exotic pet trade. Customs seizures show a variety of animals exported from India such as reptiles, lizards, leopards to pythons, venomous reptile, etc. These are carried in tiny suitcases and smuggled. An exotic animal or exotic pet is not defined under any law of India. So, there is an urgent need for sufficient and stronger legislation to efficiently curb these criminal activities.

Question 2.
Make a team of four studients. Imagine a unique animal or bird as a pet. Draw the animal and write the following information about it.
(a) Name of the pet and draw the animal on a chart paper.
Answer:
My Pet Dog – Rocky:
The dog is considered as the man’s best friend. It is a loving, honest and faithful animal. The dog is a four-footed carnivore animal. However, pet dog may be omnivore. The dog is considered as the first animal ever to be domesticated by the human. The earliest known fossil of a domestic dog is from 31,700 years ago in Belgium. They have lived with people for at least 30,000 years. In ancient times, dogs were buried together with humans. That is, they have been proved very useful for the mankind. They understand human’s way of talking and nature very wrell. Dogs vary in their colours, shapes, sizes, weight, and habits depending on the type. A female dog can give birth to 3-6 puppies in one time.

The mother dog feeds milk and takes care to all her puppies till they become independent. The lifespan of a dog can be 12 to 15 years long. It sleeps in the day and remains active at night. It can make various sounds such as howl, snarl, bark, growl, etc. in order to express different moods. It can run very vast. It has strong sense of smell and hearing. It is a very clever domestic animal. That is why, it is used by the police and army to detect criminals. Also, they have sharp vision and understanding power. They have sweet glands in their tongue which help in cooling themselves through the process of panting.

I have always been fond of dogs. I had an earnest desire to have a pet dog at home. Ultimately, my parents allowed me to purchase it from Sonepur animal fair. I purchased it for X 5,000.
I named it, Rocky. The picture of my Rocky is as follows :
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Mijbil the Otter 1

(b) My pet: (Make a table like the following and write its specifications)
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 8 Mijbil the Otter 2
Answer:
Specifications of My Pet Dog – Rocky

has can is
1. It has light weight, soft fur and fat legs 1. It can run very fast. 1. It is a warm blooded mammal
2. It has strong sense of smell. 2. It can hunt small animals such as rats, rabbits, etc. and birds like pigeon parrots, etc. 2. It is a medium size animal.
3. It has a wider field of vision. 3. It can guard the house. 3. It is a good hunter
4. It has different lifespan, 12-15 years depending on the size and the breed of the dog. 4. It can make a variety of sounds to show different moods- affection, emotion, etc. 4. It is a very sensitive, docile and smart animal
5. The dog has 800 breeds. 5. It can hear better than humans. 5. It is loyal and like being around humans.
6. It has friendly, and carable behaviour, sensory capabilities and physical attributes. 6. It can see better in dim light than humans. 6. It is very intelligent and faithful animal to its owner.
7. It has very sharp teeth and vision. 7. Dogs can serve people in many ways as guard dogs, hunting dogs, herding dogs, guide dogs for blind people, police dogs, sniffer dogs, etc. 7. It is found all over the world and considered as main domesticated animal and kept at home as pets.
8. It has curved and hairy tail. 8. It can understand human’s way of talking and nature very well. 8. Its lifespan is 12-15 years long.
9. It can be easily controlled and taught anything through proper training. 9. It is very vigilant in nature.
10. A female dog can give birth to 3-6 puppies in one time.
11. It can take action soon.

(c) What all do you have to do to keep the animal with you at home ? (You can refer to the dos and don’ts given on page no. 102 of the textbook First Flight.)
Answer:
Care for My Pet – Rocky:
All the members of my family love Rocky very much. It is a fact that owning a pet is a lifetime commitment involving considerable responsibilities. We have to involve in various caring activities to keep the animal with us at home. So, the decision to acquire one, should be made by the whole family. Without full agreement by everyone, the pet could end up unwanted. Most importantly, people should purchase the pet having the knowledge on how to take proper care of them.

Rocky is so adorable that every member of my family is attracted to it. We take proper care of it. We take an annual dog licence in accordance with government regulations. We are very careful for its annual vaccination against major diseases. We have given it proper toilet training. Especially, my younger brown is involved in its regular grooming and bathing. My sister Rita gives it obedience training. My mother is very careful of feeding it a balanced diet. We don’t confine it in the cage or tie it up to stop its natural activities. But, we encourage it for socialisation. We give special attention to a daily dose of exercise, affection and play. Rocky is a very good source of entertainment for all of us. It takes special care of my grandfather. It loves and respects him very much. It shows affections towards him by wagging its tail and licking his hand and legs. He, too, cannot live without it.

(d) Prepare a write up, share it in the class, and put it on the wall for the class to read.
Answer:
All the members of my family love Rocky very much. It is a fact that owning a pet is a lifetime commitment involving considerable responsibilities. We have to involve in various caring activities to keep the animal with us at home. So, the decision to acquire one, should be made by the whole family. Without full agreement by everyone, the pet could end up unwanted. Most importantly, people should purchase the pet having the knowledge on how to take proper care of them.

Rocky is so adorable that every member of my family is attracted to it. We take proper care of it. We take an annual dog licence in accordance with government regulations. We are very careful for its annual vaccination against major diseases. We have given it proper toilet training. Especially, my younger brown is involved in its regular grooming and bathing. My sister Rita gives it obedience training. My mother is very careful of feeding it a balanced diet. We don’t confine it in the cage or tie it up to stop its natural activities. But, we encourage it for socialisation. We give special attention to a daily dose of exercise, affection and play. Rocky is a very good source of entertainment for all of us. It takes special care of my grandfather. It loves and respects him very much. It shows affections towards him by wagging its tail and licking his hand and legs. He, too, cannot live without it.

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 7 Glimpses of India

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 7 Glimpses of India

Let’s Begin:

In the ‘Glimpses of India’ (First Flight, Class X textbook, NCERT) you have read about interesting people and places. India is a place of diversity in terms of culture, language, food, traditions, etc. There are many stories unknown to us about the way of life of people. Work in groups of four and find out about the following in any five Indian states.

  • Their regional cuisine
  • Dance form and music
  • Art form
  • Any other information

Mark these five places on a map and represent the information highlighting the interesting facts.

Reading Comprehension:

Text I
The following is an excerpt about the Parsi community in India and their food.
Read the passage and answer the questions.
“Aavoji, aavo, aavol Welcome to Delhi! Let me show you my beautiful city.” The booming voice of Nowrosji Kapadia could be heard across the length and breadth of the platform. It was Nowrosji’s favourite pastimd: a walk to the Old Delhi railway station to greet the Frontier Mail as it chugged into Delhi from Mumbai to Peshawar. With this refrain, an eager Nowrosji would cajole Parsi visitors off the train and take them home for a meal and often persuade some to stay overnight or for a few days. He would use this opportunity to tell them about the advantages of shifting to Delhi. Though his wife Jer Bai would occasionally object to unknown visitors, she was always overruled. This was the beginning of the community of Parsis in Delhi….

…Writing about Parsis in the Delhi of old is not easy. There are memories of my grandparents and parents – a collective memory of generations past and people long gone, yet here in spirit….

During festive gatherings, the women went to town with the food; outside catering was unheard of. The poorer members of the community never knew who had paid for what. This tradition continued in the northern cities of Lucknow, Kanpur, and Allahabad well into the ‘70s. Sadly, that kind of life has almost gone forever.

Food preparations began two days in advance. Dor ni pori (rich pastry stuffed with sweetened lentils) and malido (halwa) were carried in big vatus (pots) and served with puris. Anyone who has made malido can vouch for the fact that you need strong biceps; it is an exhausting exercise. The first time I made it under my grandmother’s supervision was also the last. I could hardly move my arms for the next two days! Since then, I gained a healthy respect for . my dainty grandmother.

The menu was extensive. Breakfast would start with either sev—brown vermicelli cooked in milk and served with fresh cream – or ravo, semolina pudding, Mithu dahi or sweetened curd made with full cream milk was an absolute must. This was followed by bafellaeeda, hard-boiled eggs, and kheemo kaleji, mutton mince with liver. For lunch, there was almost always smori dal chawal and macchi no patio — white boiled rice with yellow dal offset by a tart and tangy fish curry.

Teatime was special at our home. My grandmother made it a point to dress for tea; I was made to do the same. Once we were ready, out came the treats: Parsi biscuits – batasa; nan-khatai and flaky khari; patrel, rolled, steamed arbi leaves stuffed with besan masala-, kumas, rich Parsi cake; and my favourite, bhakra, sweet deep fried doughnuts. That tradition has stayed with me. I certainly don’t dress up, but I still need a snack with at least three cups of tea!…
(Source: ‘Down Memory Lane with the Parsis of New Delhi’, Shernaz Italiah, The Wire)

Question 1.
Infer the meaning of the following expressions
(а) Nowrosji would cajole Parsi visitors off the train.
(b) Jer Bai would occasionally object to unknown visitors, she was always overruled.
(c) …outside catering was unheard of.
(d) I gained a healthy respect for my dainty grandmother.
Answer:
(a) Nowrosji requested/persuaded the Parsi visitors to get down from the train and go with him to his house in Old Delhi.
(b) Jer Bai did not like unknown visitors in her home. She was against this practice but she was silenced by Nowrosji.
(c) Eating outside in a hotel or dhaba was not is practice then; people ate home made food only.
(d) malido making is an exhaustive exercise. When the author, under the supervision of her grandmother made it, she could not move her arms for two days. Seeing the exhaustion involved in it, she developed a particular kind of respect for her grandmother who made it frequently.

Question 2.
Answer the following questions.
(a) “Aavoji, aavo, aavo! Welcome to Delhi! Let me show you my beautiful city.” Who said this and why?
(b) Why were Jer Bai’s arguments always overruled?
(c) Why do you think outside catering was unheard of? ‘
(d) According to the writer what “kind of life has almost gone forever?
(e) What has made the writer more respectful to her grandmother?
(f) What was special about the tea time in the writer’s home?
Answer:
(a) Nowrosji used to say this on the Old Delhi Railway platform in order to take Parsi visitors home.

(b) Jer Bai’s arguments were overruled by Nowrosji because he was intensely inclined to persuade them to settle in Old Delhi.

(c) People might be having plenty of time to cook and eat. Hotels might be few in service. They possessed scanty money. May be they thought home made food was more healthy and hygienic.

(d) During festive gatherings women went to town with food. They fed the poorer community. But their members never could conjecture who had paid for what. This tradition or the way of life has almost gone forever.

(e) Malido making was an exhaustive exercise which grandmother, out of love for children, undertook. When the author made it once her, arms became rigid for two days. Realisation of the difficulties in making malido made the writer more respectful to her grandmother.

(f) Tea time was special at the author’s home. Grandmother had made it a point to dress for tea. Once they were ready; out came the treats.

Question 3.
Tick the correct answer. What is “an
Answer:
(a) Preparing for the festival. ( )
(b) Travelling from Mumbai to Peshawar. ( )
(c) Writing about Parsis in old Delhi. ( )
(d) Cooking malido, the Parsi style halwa. ( )
Answer:
(a) X
(b) X
(c) X
(d) ✓

Question 4.
Make a list of Parsi delicacies as mentioned in the passage. A few are given above (in Workbook Page 87). You can add more to the list. Find the words for Mithu dahi in your language.
Answer:
List of Parsi delicacies:
Patara ni Machhi, Dhanshak, Lagan nu Custard, Ravo, Parsi Malido, Dar ni pori, sev, semolina pudding, Mithu dahi, bafellaeeda, hard boiled eggs, Kheemo Kaleji, mutton mince with liver, smori dal, chawal, machhi na patio, fish curry, parsi biscuits, batasa, nan khatai, flaky khari, patrel, rolled steamed arbi leaves, kumas, Parsi cake, bhakhra, sweet deep fried doughnuts.

Text II
You have read about Coorg, its rainforests, and coffee and tea from Assam in ‘Glimpses of India’ (First Flight, Class X textbook, NCERT). The following extract is about the cultivation of coffee in Araku valley in Andhra Pradesh. The story of Araku Valley traverses an unusual trajectory through Adivasi empowerment, hot-air balloons and some of the best coffee in the world.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions.
Located at about ,1,200m above sea level, the valley, tucked away in the north-eastern corner of Andhra Pradesh, shares a border with Odisha. For guests and participants at the Araku Balloon Festival (ABF), held between 18-20 January every year, this is sightseeing like nothing else.

The drive to far-flung coffee estates takes us through the five northern mandals of Anantha giri, Dumbriguda, Hukumpeta, Munchingi Puttu and Araku valley. The name Araku for the coffee was chosen simply because it sounded poetic. The view from the ground level is as impressive as the one from above – the landscape changes from densely forested hills to sweeping valleys and terrace farms surrounding occasional village clusters. The journey of Araku Coffee from a livelihood initiative by the Naandi Foundation to a globally appreciated product has been in the making for over a decade. It is also intrinsically tied to the history of how coffee arrived in this valley. It was a British civil servant, N.S. Brodie, who introduced coffee to these hill tracts in 1898.

Today, Araku coffee is a brand that works with 517 villages and 10,986 farmers, all of whom are estate owners and entrepreneurs with a stake in the business. The reason the coffee is of such high quality is that it follows the best practices of bio-dynamic farming by creating an interconnected and symbiotic ecosystem. The soil is enriched through composting and a variety of shade trees are planted, including cash-yielding fruit trees like mango and jackfruit. Terroirs are assessed and careful standard operating procedures are put in place from “sapling to savouring”, which ensures healthier plants and sweeter cherries and eventually a far superior coffee aroma and flavour.
(Source: ‘What’s Brewing in Araku Valley?’ by Diya Kohli, livemint, 23 Feb. 2019)

Question 1.
Infer the meaning of the following:
(а) traverses an unusual trajectory
(b) The drive to far-flung coffee estates
(c) densely forested hills
(d) village clusters
Answer:
(a) It means that the story of Araku Valley does not move in a straight line; instead it moves through different points of concern.
(b) It means that a journey by car to coffee estates which are located in remotest part of the land is cumbersome.
(c) It means that the hills there, are thickly afforested; many trees of many kinds are there to behold.
(d) It means that the villages there, are in groups surrounded by forests.

Question 2.
Find words from the text which mean the following:
(a) in a place that is hidden (paragraph one)
(b) distant or remote (paragraph two)
(c) to improve the quality or flavour of something (paragraph four)
(d) a smell specially a pleasant one (paragraph four)
Answer:
(a) tucked away
(b) far flung
(c) enriched
(d) flavour

Question 3.
Answer the following questions.
(a) What is unique about the Araku valley as stated in paragraph one?
(b) Where is Araku valley?
(c) Underline and write below the sentences, words, and expressions which indicate that Araku coffee has moved ahead of being the only means of livelihood.
(d) State a historical fact about the coffee in the valley?
(e) There are specific terms being used in the passage for the cultivation of coffee for example, terrace farms, biodynamic farming, etc. Find more such terms and their meanings.
Answer:
(a) The unique thing is that the story of Araku Valley traverses an unusual trajectory through Adivasi empowerment, hot air balloons and some of the best coffee in the world.

(b) Located at about 1200 m above sea-level, the valley is tucked away in the north eastern corner of Andhra Pradesh.

(c) Some lines are…

  • The name Araku was chosen for the coffee for it being poetic.
  • The journey of Araku coffee from a livelihood initiative to a globally appreciated product…

(d) The Araku coffee is a brand that works with 517 villages and 10,986 farmers…

(e) Words are bio dynamic, enterpreneurs, terroirs, trajectory, traverses, tucked etc.

Question 4.
The expression “sapling to savouring” in paragraph four means: (Tick the right answer)
(a) Coffee plants are taken care of from the stage of plantation till its beans are ready for an enjoyable cup of coffee. ( )
(b) Coffee saplings are very delicate hence a lot of care is being taken of them. ( )
(c) The growth of coffee plants is dependent on shady trees. ( )
(d) Coffee plant can give a cup of enjoyable coffee. ( )
Answer:
(a) ✓
(b) X
(c) X
(d) X

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Match the sounds in Column A with the appropriate words from Column B.
Example : rustling of silk
The meanings of some words are given below which will help you to find out the words.

A B
(a) Shuffling of chains
(b) Striking of leaves
(c) Puffing of feet
(d) clanking of a match
(e) sighing of the door
(f) rustling of the wind
(g) banging of an engine
(h) gurggling of hyenas
(i) howling of water

Answer:

A B
(a) Shuffling of feet
(b) Striking of a match
(c) Puffing of the wind
(d) clanking of chains
(e) sighing of an engine
(f) rustling of leaves
(g) banging of the door
(h) gurggling of water
(i) howling of hyenas

Grammar:

Question 1.
You have read about-ing and -ed adjectives in the textbook, the First Flight, page number 97. Read it again to understand how these adjectives are used. These are also the present participles (-ing forms) and past participles (-ed forms) of verbs and are used as adjectives. Read the following sentences to know this.

  • Rita gave me a welcoming cup of coffee.
  • Her performance in the test was pleasing.
  • She appeared delighted with the gift.
  • The bored students became restless.

Now fill in the blanks of the sentences with past participle from one of the following words.
(infect, take, quote, use, watch, frighten, propose)
(a) People demonstrated against the changes __________
(b) The loud cheer went up from the students __________
(c) After the editor read the article, she checked all the examples __________.
(d) Rub the antiseptic cream in the __________ area.
(e) My wallet was among the things __________.
(f) Cyclone Fani was a __________ experience.
Answer:
(a) proposed
(b) unwatched
(c) used
(d) infected
(e) taken
(f) frightening

Question 2.
Rewrite in the past tense the following excerpt from the ‘Glimpses of India’ (First Flight, Class X textbook) and check your answers with a partner.
Birds, bees, and butterflies are there to give you company. Macaques, Malabar squirrels, langurs, and slender loris keep a watchful eye from the tree canopy. I do, however, prefer to step aside for wild elephants. The climb to the Brahmagiri hills brings you into a panoramic view of the entire misty landscape of Coorg. A walk across the rope bridge leads to the sixty-four acre island of Nisargadhama. Running into Buddhist monks from India’s largest Tibetan settlement, at nearby Bylakuppe, is a bonus. The monks, in red, ochre, and yellow robes are amongst the many surprises that wait to be discovered by visitors searching for the heart and soul of India, right here in Coorg.
Answer:
Birds, bees, and butterflies were there to give you company. Macaques, Malabar squirrels, langurs, and slender loris kept a watchful eye from the tree canopy. I did, however, prefer to step aside for wild elephants. The climb to the Brahmagiri hills brought you into a panoramic view of the entire misty landscape of Coorg. A walk across the rope bridge led to the sixty four acre island of Nisargadhama. Running into Buddhist monks from India’s largest Tibetan settlement, at nearby Bylakuppe was a bonus. The monks, in red, ochre, and yellow robes were amongst the many surprises that waited to be discovered by visitors searching for the heart and soul of India, right here in Coorg.

Editing:

Question 1.
Some words have been wrongly spelt in the paragraph given on Textbook Pg 93. Correct the words and read the paragraph aloud.
Answer:

Line No. Incorrect Correct
3 height way highway
4 varity
magnifiscent
variety
magnificent
6 idyll ideal
7 cigarete
trakking
cigarette
trekking
8 delikate delicate
9 compeled
mountainering
compelled
mountaineering
10 grasing grazing
11 privent prevent
12 Incorrect Correct

Listening:

Ask your classmate or teacher to read aloud the following passage from the text ‘Glimpses of India’ (First Flight, Class X textbook). Listen carefully, and note down the keywords, main ideas and interesting expressions in your notebook while listening.

During our childhood in Goa, the baker used to be our friend, companion and guide. He used to come at least twice a day. Once, when he set out in the morning on his selling round, and then again, when he returned after emptying his huge basket. The jingling thud of his bamboo woke us up from sleep and we ran to meet and greet him. Why was it so? Was it for the love of the loaf? Not at all. The loaves were bought by some Paskine or Bastine, the maid¬servant of the house! What we longed for were those bread-bangles which we chose carefully. Sometimes it was sweet bread of a special kind.

The baker made his musical entry on the scene with the ‘jhang, jhang – sound of his specially made bamboo staff. One hand supported the basket on his head and the other banged the bamboo on the ground. He would greet the lady of the house with a “Good morning” and then place his basket on the vertical bamboo. We kids would be pushed aside with a mild rebuke and the loaves would be delivered to the servant. But we would not give up. We would climb a bench or the parapet and peep into the basket, somehow. I can still recall the typical fragrance of those loaves; loaves for the elders and the bangles for the children. Then we did not even care to brush our teeth or wash our mouths properly. And why should we ? Who would take the trouble of plucking the mango leaf for the toothbrush ? And why was it necessary at all ? The tiger never brushed his teeth. Hot tea could wash and clean up everything so nicely, after all!
Now summarise the paragraph using your notes.
Answer:
During our child hood, the baker:

  • was friend, companion and guide.
  • visited twice a day.
  • jingling thud of his bamboo woke us.
  • we surrounded him for bread bangles.
  • made a musical entry.
  • greeted the lady with good morning.
  • pushed aside the kids.
  • delivered loaves to servants.
  • Eager and impatient, we climbed a bench or the parapet.
  • delivered loaves for elders and bangles for children
  • we did not brush teeth – ate bangles.

Summary:
During our childhood, the baker was our friend, companion and guide because he delivered to us bread bangles. He visited our place twice a day. He made a musical entry and greeted the ladies with good morning. He delivered the loaves to elders and bangles to children. In impatience, we did not brush teeth and ate the bangles. After all the tiger too never brushes his teeth.
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 7 Glimpses of India 1
It is just a graphical representation. Map not to scale.

Speaking:

Question 1.
Excursions give opportunities to explore nature, places of historical interest, etc. Tourists are interested in meeting people, understanding their culture, and enjoying the variety in food. The Indian Railways have recently introduced glass Vistadome coach in train to provide a delightful travelling experience to the picturesque valley of Araku in Vishakhapatnam.
In groups of four, discuss and plan a budget trip to Araku valley. You may keep the following in mind while planning. Add more points to the following as per your requirement.

  • Find out the location (look up the map) and accessibility to the places to be visited.
  • Calculate the cost of the stay.
  • Search for an economic and safe accommodation, perhaps a home stay.
  • Find out the modes of transport and booking

Now, prepare an itinerary of your excursion to Araku valley and share with the class.
Answer:
Location : Araku valley is a hill station in Vishakhapatnam district in Indian state of Andhra Pradesh lying 111 km west of Vishakhapatnam. This place is often referred to as Ooty of Andhra. It is a valley in the Eastern Ghats inhabited by different tribes.

Places to Visit : INS Kurusura Submarine Museum, Borra Caves, Simhachalam Temple. Kailasagiri Park, Rama Krishna Beach, Araku Valley, Dushikonda Beach, Yarada Beach, Dolphin’s nose, Vuda Park, Sri Kanaka Mahalakshmi Temple, Kothopally Waterfalls, Kondkarla Ava Beach, Bheemunipatnam Beach, Matsya Darshini Acquarium, Katiki Falls, Sivaji Park etc.

Per head cost of stay : ₹ 1750/ night (cheapest)

Modes of transport and booking : Train; booking can be done online.

Question 2.
Try repeating some of these tongue twisters :
(a) Pre shrunk shirts
(b) Six slim slick slender saplings
(c) The sixth sheikh’s sixth sheep’s sick
(d) Tie twine to three twigs
(e) Double bubble gum bubbles double
Answer:
Do it yourself (Tongue twisters)

Writing:

Question 1.
Infer the meaning of the following expressions in the passage on Parsi community. “Aavoji, aavo, aavo! Welcome to Delhi.”

  • length and breadth
  • chugged into
  • vouch for
  • long gone
  • out came the treats

Now, write an account of a travel by train using these expressions.
Describe the journey by giving details of distance, booking of tickets, facilities available, and suggestions for improvement. You can add pictures of places, people, etc.
Answer:
“Aavoji, aavo, aavo! Welcome to Delhi.” means please come, come, come! You are welcomed in Delhi.

  • length and breadth – the whole extent of
  • chugged into – moved into, enter.
  • vouch for – confirm (a truth/appropriacy)
  • long gone – Something that is gone long ago.
  • Out came the treats — grandmother brought on table many delicious things to eat.

An account of a travel by train.
From Pathankot to Miranda Station, H.P. it is around 60 km journey in length and breadth. Hardly had I reached the station when the toy train chugged into the platform; I got into it. Although I can not vouch for total comfort in the train, I am sure, no one can feel boredom, because picturesque land around is replete with forests and at every other station, there are hawkers and vendors to fietch all you need. When did the train cross the border of the Punjab and entered into Himachal Pradesh, I could not notice due to my deep involvement in outside scenery. Long gone were the hustle and bustle of the Punjab and the serenity and tranquillity were spread all over. I reached my sister’s house and got fresh. Then out came the treats with a steaming cup of coffee; I felt I am in heaven.

Palampur is a beautiful place where mountain peaks at a distance remain covered with snow always. It takes 6 hrs to reach there from Pathankot. Ticket booking is similar to the ordinary train ticket booking. So far the facilities are concerned, one can book a ticket in first class compartment. Rest everything is same. The Railways should come up with some good trains which run faster and look nicer. A waiting hall should be constructed there for the passengers.

Question 2.
Write an advertisement for your favourite tea or coffee.
Answer:
Poster:
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 7 Glimpses of India 2

Question 3.
You have read about breads and bakers in Goa. (First Flight, Class X).
Traditional breads are famous in Kashmir as well. It is said that a Kashmiri’s day starts with a cup of piping hot nun chai (salty pink tea) and a crisp, freshly baked bread from the Kandur (the traditional baker). In Kashmir, the Kandur shop isn’t just a place where one goes to buy the morning and evening breads, it is a social hub. It is a place where you get to hear and participate in discussions that range from gossip to political discourses. The Kandur shop or Kandur waan as it is called in Kashmiri has variety of breads for different occasions that are baked in the Kandur’s oven.

Read about some of the Kashmiri breads:
→ Tsot-Girda : is a medium sized round everyday bread that is a must on every breakfast table in Kashmir.

→ Lavasa : is a puffy level bread made from maida.

→ Tsochwor or Tilvor : is a bagel shaped, slightly hard bread with a sprinkling of sesame seeds on top. The baker prepares ‘tsochwor’ at noon time to be enjoyed with the afternoon tea.

→ Kulcha : These are crispy palm-sized breads sprinkled with poppy seeds. These are mith (sweet) and namkeen (savoury). The bread is taken with some traditional Dodh Kehva (rifilk Kehva).

→ Sheermal : is another type of bread from Kashmir. It is mildly sweet.

→ Roath : The sweet bread with a cake like texture is baked in traditional tandoor and is topped with dry fruits. However, this one bread is made for grand occasions like weddings, child birth or engagements and served with Kehva.
→ Now, collect information about breads,parathas, rotis in different parts of the country.

→ You can talk to peers, teachers, parents, grandparents, community members and make use of internet.

→ Make an interesting collage using pictures and write a few sentences about each brfead based on the information you have gathered.
Answer:
→ Information collected about breads, rotis and Parathas:
It is most often made from wheat flour, cooked on a flat or slightly concave iron griddle called tawa. Traditionally rotis have also been made from the flour of millet, corn, jowar and even rice. Like breads around the world, roti is a staple accompaniment to other foods. Parathas are similar to rotis; they are sometimes stuffed with vegetables.

→ Variations : Chapati, Makki di roti, rumali roti, tandoori roti, wrap roti.

→ main ingredients : Atta (wheat) flour.

→ place of origin : Indian subcontinent.

→ Different types of bread prevalent in India

  • Roti: The rotis that we eat daily is a kind of bread which is made from wheat flour mainly.
  • Poori: This is too a bread; it is made on happy occasions. Poori is unleavened and made with whole wheat dough and is deep fried.
  • Luchi : This is almost like Poori; it is more popular in Bengal and uses refined flour instead of whole wheat flour.
  • Paratha : Paratha separates into layers. Its shape differs. Some of them are stuffed with veggies to meat.
  • Naan : This is soft spongy leavened bread which came to India from central Asia. It is cooked in tandoor; milk instead of water is used to knead the dough.
  • Kulcha : It is punjabi variation of naan; it is a leavened flat bread made with refined flour and cooked in tandoor.
  • Appam: This is a south Indian flat bread made with rice and coconut milk batter. It has several variations.
  • Bhaturft : -Deep fried and served with chole, this leavened bread is crispy and much larger in size than poori.
  • Puran Poll: A popular Maharashtrian delicacy, it is a kind of paratha stuffed with chana dal, jaggery and coconut mixture and then cooked with ghee.
  • Sheermal: An inseparable part of traditional Awadhi and Nizami cuisine, Sheermal is a leavened bread cooked in tandoor. It is flavoured with saffron and has a mildly sweet taste.
  • Bakarkhani: It is a leavened bread and has a biscuit like texture. It is mildly spiced, is sweet and flavoured with saffron. It is a part of Eid celebrations.
  • Pathiri: This white, thin pancake made with rice flour is popular with Malabari Muslims and is an essential part of iftaar during Ramzaan.
  • Parotta : It is a layered flat bread mid way between Lachha paratha and tikona Paratha and is popular in Kerala.
  • Lachha Paratha : It is a round bread that has several layers which are made by applying ghee while rolling the dough.
  • Roti/Chapati: Round and soft, roti or chapati is made with whole wheat flour and is part of our daily diet.
  • Bhakri : Hard and crisp, it is an unleavened bread made with flour and is popular in Maharashtra, Goa and Gujarat.
  • Tandoori roti: Similar to naan, this bread is made of whole wheat and is cooked in clay oven at a high temperature.
  • Baati: It is a Rajasthani preparation served with daal and choorma.
  • Litti: It is a popular Bihari dish. It looks like a ball which is baked in clay oven and is stuffed with Sattu. It is served with chokha made with brinjal and potatoes.
  • Kachori : Kachori is a festival item; it is thicker than poori. It is stuffed with a variety of ingredients.
  • Thalipeeth : It is made with rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, urad and chana. It is spicry and savoury.
  • Thepla : Made with whole wheat flour, gram flour, fenugreek leaves and spices, this Gujarati bread is soft and has a longer shelf life than most breads.

“Project”:

Question 1.
The Frontier mail, the train mentioned in the passage on the Parsi community was the prestigious and luxurious train which was flagged off in 1928 from Bombay to Peshawar. It was the fastest train known for its punctuality. It covered the distance of 2,335 kms in record time of seventy two hours.
The train used to depart from Ballard Pier Mall Station at Bombay harbour for passengers arriving from England by ship and for the collection of mail brought in from steamers from Europe. It was fashionable to travel by Frontier Mail in those days!
→ Our railways have undergone magical transformation since independence from electrification to high speed etc. Find more about Indian Railways and prepare a write up. You can add experiences of rail travel of the people.
→ Collect the pictures and information about vintage, royal and luxury trains in India.
Answer:
A write-up on the Indian Railways:
Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 7 Glimpses of India 3
Founded on 8th May 1845, the Indian Railways is India’s national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways. It is the fourth largest network in the world by size. It has a route length of 67,368 kilometre and total track length of 121,407 kilometre as of March 2017. Routes are electrified with 25 KV AC electric traction while thirty three per cent of them are double or multi-tracked.

More than 20,000 passenger trains are run by the Indian Railways daily on long distance as well as on suburban routes from 7,349 stations across India. All the trains have been a 5 digit number for identification. The most common type of trains mail or express – run at an average speed of 50.6 kilometres per hour. The Indian Railways runs more than 92,000 trains daily in the freight segment; these trains run at an average speed of 24 kms per hours.

The Indian Railways consists of 277,987 freign wagons, 70,937 passenger coaches and 11,452 locomotives. At several places in India, the Indian Railways has coach production and locomotive facilities. Being the world’s eighth largest employer, it has 1,308 million employees as on March 2017.

In the year that ended on March 18, the Indian Railways carried 8.26 billion passengers and transported 1.16 billion tonnes of freight. In the fiscal year 2017-18, the Indian Railways is projected to have revenue of 1.874 million consisting of 1.175 trillion in freight revenue with an operating ratio of 96.0 per cent.

Information and Pictures About Luxury Trains:
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Luxury trains are designed to offer a very comfortable ride and evoke an association with history and heritage. Operating in several countries, they are premium, travel option. Although some luxury trains promote tourism in destinations across continent, others such as Maharaja Express take passengers on a long, leisurely ride through a single country.

Although air travel can be monotonous, passengers on a luxury train can see the local environment, social and economic conditions and a myriad of colours during their travels. Unlike airplanes, luxury trains are spacious, and have restaurants and bars, comfortable seating and sleeping areas and bathrooms.

Information And Pictures about Royal Trains:
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The British Royal Train is used to convey senior members of the British Royal family and associated staff of the Royal Household around the railway network of Great Britain. Owned by Network Rail, it is maintained and operated by DB Cargo UK.

Information and Pictures About Vintage Trains:
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A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. Steam engines were first developed in United Kingdom during the early 19th century. Richard Trevithick built the first steam locomotive in 1802. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was built in 1812-13 by John Blenkinsop. Locomotion No. 1 built by George Stepheson and his son Robert’s company Robert stephenson and company was the first steam locomotive to haul passengers on a public railway, the stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. In 1830, George Stephenson opened the first public inter-city railway, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions