CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2019 Delhi

Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100

General Instructions:

  • All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
  • Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
  • Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  • Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
  • In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
  • Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2019 Delhi Set – I

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

Section – A

Question 1.
Explain the term ‘Capitalism’. [1]
What is meant by ‘Eastern Alliance’ formed during the Cold War period ?
Capitalism is an economic and political system based on the private ownership of country’s trade and industry, whereas under socialism the state plans and produces goods and either owns or redistributes resources among its citizens. ‘Capitalism’ rules on a system of checks and balances based on free market forces brought about through competition.
The Cold war gave birth to ‘Eastern Alliance’ known as Warsaw pact with eastern European countries as its members, headed by the Soviet Union in 1955. Its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces.

Question 2.
Which one of the following statements related to the Iraq invasion by the US is incorrect ? [1]
(i) More than forty other countries were involved in this invasion.
(ii) The UN had given consent to invade Iraq.
(iii) The invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction.
(iv) The US lost over 3000 military personnel in this war.
(ii) The UN had given consent to invade Iraq.

Question 3.
Highlight any one benefit of having an International Organization. [1]
Explain the importance of ‘Arms Control’ as a measure of traditional security.
International organisations help countries to cooperate to create better living conditions all over the world and provide a common platform to discuss contentious issues and find peaceful solutions by a fixed mechanism, rules and bureaucracy.
Arms control regulated the acquisition or development of ,weapons. It is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of weapons of mass destruction. Arms control helps to establish co¬operation, stability and mutual security between different countries in the world. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 was an arms control treaty in the sense that it regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons.

Question 4.
Justify the reorganization of states in India on language basis by giving one suitable argument. [1]
Division into linguistic states changed the nature of democratic politics and leadership in some basic ways. The path to politics and power could be better distributed among speakers of regional language. Such leaders were accepted better by the indigenous people. Linguistic re-organisation also gave some uniform basis to the drawing of state boundaries. It strengthened national unity. State Government offices could function smoothly and easily than before.

Question 5.
Explain the meaning of ‘Coalition Govern¬ment’. [1]
A coalition government is a government formed when no single party secures absolute majority in the Lok Sabha. In such a situation, two or more parties come together and form a government. This reduces the dominance of any one party within that coalition.

Section – B

Question 6.
Describe any two features of the Soviet System. [2]
Mention any two effects on the East Europe an countries that the Soviet army had liberated from the fascist forces after the Second World War.

  • It had a complex communication network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel.
  • The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens, and the government subsidized basic necessities including health, education, , employment opportunities, childcare and other welfare schemes.
  • State ownership was the dominant form of ownership : land and productive asset? were owned and controlled by the Soviet state.

Effects that Soviet Union had on East’European Countries are :
The political and economic systems of all these countries were modeled after that of the USSR. This was known as the ‘Socialist bloc’.

The Warsaw Pact, a military alliance, held them together under the leadership of USSR. The Soviet regime proclaimed a policy of detente and sought increased economic co-operation after having driven the Axis powers out of Eastern Europe.

Question 7.
Suggest any two measures to improve relations between India and Pakistan. [2]
How did the Sino-Indian conflict of 1962 affect the Communist Party of India ?
The two countries have to undertake confidence building measures to reduce the risk of / war. Leaders have to set an example by holding joint dialogues to understand each other better and to find solutions to the major problems between the two neighbours. Trade and cultural exchanges should be encouraged once confidence has been achieved through dialogue.

Apart from the same, both armies have to offer olive branches and stop cease-fire violations. The heads of both the countries should realize that r only negotiations, not action can help increase the camaraderie between the two nations. Both countries should try to de-escalate the current level of tensions on LOC.
The Sino-Indian conflict affected the communist Party of India in various ways. This and the growing rift between China and the Soviet Union created , irreconcilable differences within the Communist Party of India (CPI). The pro-USSR faction remained within the CPI and moved towards closer ties with the Congress. The other faction was for sometime closer to China and was against any ties with the Congress. The party split in 1964 and the leaders of the latter faction formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist) i.e., (CPI-M). In the wake of the China war, many leaders of CPI (M) were arrested for being pro-China. The members of the party were confused and unsure about which stance to follow. Some of them were ardent Nehru followers while some were impressed by younger leaders like Jyoti Basu and Harikrshanan Singh.

Question 8.
Evaluate the impact of national emergency declared in June 1975. [2]
Assess the role played by ‘defections’ on Indian politics.
The emergency brought the agitation to an abrupt stop; strikes were banned; many opposition leaders were put in jail; the political situation became very quiet though tense. Deciding to use its special powers under Emergency provisions, the government suspended the freedom of the Press. Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published. Apprehending social and communal disharmony, the government banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamait-e-Islami. Protests and strikes and public agitations were also disallowed. Most importantly, under the provisions of Emergency, the various Fundamental Rights of citizens stood suspended, including the right of citizens to move the Court for restoring their Fundamental Rights.
Defection refers to the act of showing disloyalty by changing parties for personal motives. After the 1967 general election, the breakaway Congress legislators played an important role in installing non-Congress governments in three States—Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Allegations were made that the legislators changed their allegiance very frequently and in Haryana, it was reported that a legislator changed his allegiance thrice in a day. Between March and December 1967, out of total membership of about 3,450 state legislators about 320 changed their loyalties. This caused politial instability. People started questioning the credibility of these parties and their leaders. Thus, a visible lack of confidence in party affairs and their initiatives was seen among people.

Question 9.
Analyse the main reason for limiting the Dravidian Movement from the whole South India to Tamil Nadu only. [2]
The movement by Dravidians was at its height from the 1940s and 1960s but due to the fear of Tamil hegemony, it failed to find any support outside Tamil Nadu. In 1960, the DMK leader decided to delete the demand of Dravida Nadu from the party programme at a meeting held in the absence of Annadurai. Annadurai abandoned the claim for Dravida Nadu-now geograhically limited to modem Tamil Nadu, completely in 1963.

Question 10.
Match the following in Column ‘A’ with those in Column ‘B’ in a meaningful way. [4 × 1/2 = 2]

Column ‘A’

Column ‘B’

(i) Chipko Movement (a) Maharashtra
(ii) Narmada Bachao Aandolan. (b) Uttarakhand
(iii) Dalit Panthers Movement (c) Andhra Pradesh
(iv) Anti-Arrack Movement (d) Gujarat


Column ‘A’

Column ‘B’

(i) Chipko Movement (b) Uttarakhand
(ii) Narmada Bachao Aandolan. (d) Gujarat
(iii) Dalit Panthers Movement (a) Maharashtra
(iv) Anti-Arrack Movement (c)  Andhra Pradesh

Section – C

Question 11.
Explain any two constraints on the American hegemony. [2 × 2 = 4]
Explain any two factors that have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States was a superpower. But history tells us that empires decline because they decay from within. Similarly, the biggest constraint to American hegemony is from within. Two constraints on American power are as follows :

  • The first constraint is the institutional architecture of the American State itself. American system is based on division of power between the three organs of government, i.e., the Congress (Legislature), the Executive (President) and Judiciary.
  • The second constraint of American Power is the open nature of the American Society. It means that there is no government control over mass media.

Pakistan has failed to establish a stable democracy due to several reasons, they are :

  • The social dominance of military, clergy and landed aristocracy in Pakistan has been central to military dictatorship and overthrow of democratic regimes. Pakistan’s hostility with India has also made the military strong.
  • The strength of pro-military group clearly shows that political parties and democracy in Pakistan is not in their true forms. This misled democracy and rule by selfish-minded parties will only hamper Pakistan’s security.

These grounds have helped Pakistani military to stay in power for long. And though democracy has not been successful in Pakistan, pro-democracy sentiments are quite strong here. The lack of a real ‘support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further ensured the dominance of military in Pakistan. The US along with other western states, has favoured military dictatorship in Pakistan.

Question 12.
Describe any four criteria that have been proposed in recent years for new permanent and non-permanent members of the U.N. Security Council. [4 × 1=4]
Describe any four new sources of threats to non- traditional security.
On the reforms of structures and processes, the biggest discussion has been on the functioning of Security Council. The following are just some of the criteria that have been proposed for election of new permanent and non-permanent members of the security council. For a new member, it has been suggested that it should be :

  • A major economic power.
  • A major military power.
  • A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
  • A big nation in terms of its population.
  • A nation that respects democracy and Human Rights.
  • A country that would make the council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic systems and culture.

Security council should reform and improve its working to make the UN more effective i.e., inclusion of member states should be judged on the basis of their contribution to peace keeping initiatives. Permanent members are industrialised developed countries and should have special Veto Powers. This position remains the same and no one is allowed to enter in this elite list. Such developed big countries usually neglect the need of smaller nations and such situation must be changed and balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries to become either permanent or non-permanent members of security council.
Non-traditional concept of security includes human and global security covering a wide range of threats affecting human existence : ‘

  • It does not cover only the states but also the individuals and communities also.
  •  It emphasises on security and nature of threat and right approach to deal with the threat.

Its sources are identified as follow :

  • Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government.
  • Human right refers to basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being, for example, political rights, freedom of speech and expression and right to live a dignified life. Its violation poses a serious threat to security as well.
  • Global poverty refers to low economic growth and national income and low standard of living in developing or least developed countries.
  • Health epidemic is a very serious threat to country’s security because severe acute respiratory syndrome HIV, AIDS, spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations.

Question 13.
Explain any two major causes of globalization. [2 × 2 = 4]
Globalization means linking the economy of the country with the economies of other countries by means of trade and free mobility of capital labour etc. In the, process of Globalization, countries become interdependent and the distance between people gets shortened.
Causes of globalization :

  • The four flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people is caused by technological advances. It has revolutionised communication between different parts of the world.
  • With technological advances, it is important for ‘People’ in different parts of the world to ‘recognise these interconnections’ with the rest of the world. For example, the Bird Flu or tsunami is not confined to any particular national boundary, even economic events impact other nations.
  • Interconnection with rest of the world due to availability of improved communication also helped to cause globalisation.

Question 14.
Describe any four features of the ideology of the Bhartiya Jana Sangh formed in 1951. [4]
Four features of the ideology of Bhartiya Jana Sangh are :

  • Bharatiya Jana Sangh laid emphasis on the idea of one country, one culture and one nation.
  • Bharatiya Jana Sangh called for a reunion of India and Pakistan is Akhand Bharat.
  • It was a consistent advocate of India developing nuclear weapons.
  • The party wanted to replace English with Hindi as the official language of India and believed that the country could become modern, progressive and strong on basis of Indian culture and spacing traditions accommodating social diverties.

Question 15.
Analyse the Nuclear policy of India. [1 × 4 = 4]
Analyse any two causes of conflict between India and China. [2 × 2 = 4]
Nuclear programme was initiated in late 1940’s and early 1950’s, under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. The main features of the Nuclear Policy of India are :

  • India wants to generate atomic energy for peaceful purpose.
  • India is against nuclear weapons. It pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament.
  • When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as a peaceful explosion.
  • India did not join the NPT, it considered the NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign it.

Causes of conflict between India and China :
(i) CPEC: China Pakistan economic corridor is a road which starts from China and ends at Gwadar Port. This road passes through a disputed territory, Pakistan occupied Kashmir, which is a matter of conflict between both India and Pakistan since ages.

(ii) South China Sea: China claims their historical rights over South China sea. However, over a sea, no single nation can have claim. India and China are in constant conflict over this issue. They disagree on China’s claim of ownership.

(iii) NSG: India wants to be part of Nuclear Suppliers Group which has 48 countries. China has blocked India from joining this group. The reason given is that India is a non party to NPT—Non Proliferation treaty and thus can not be trusted with the membership.

(iv) China’s support to Pakistan in the UN and otherwise for their Nuclear programme is also a reason for their bitter relations.

Question 16.
Examine any four factors that, you think, led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi Government in the early 1970s. [4]
The following factors led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s :

  • The 1971 elections were followed by the . crisis in East Pakistan and Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh. These events increased the popularity of Indira Gandhi. Even the opposition leaders admired her statesmanship.
  • Indira Gandhi’s party swept the state assembly elections held in 1972. She was seen as the protector of the poor and the under privileged as well as a strong nationalist leader.
  • In 1971, the constitution was amended to remove legal obstacles for abolition of privy purses. This added to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government among the masses.
  • She had given a famous positive slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’. She focused on growth of public sector. She had imposed ‘ceiling’ on rural land holdings and urban property to remove disparities in income and opportunity.

Section – D

Question 17.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the question that follow:
It is important to remember that India chose to involve other members of the non-aligned group in this mission of reducing tension. During the Cold War, India repeatedly tried to activate those regional and international organizations, which were not a part of alliances led by the US and the USSR. Nehru reposed great faith in ‘a genuine commonwealth of free and co-operating nations’ that would play a positive role in softening, if not ending, the Cold War’.
(i) Explain the meaning of Cold War.
(ii) Explain India’s response to then ongoing Cold War.
(iii) Highlight any two features of India’s policy of Non-alignment. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
Read the following passage and answer the following questions :
India has maintained good relations with all the post-communist countries. But the strongest relations are still those between Russia and India. India’s relations with Russia are an important aspect of India’s foreign policy. Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions. Indian heroes from, Raj Kapoor to Amitabh Bachchan are household names in Russia and many post-Soviet countries. One can hear Hindi film songs all over the region, and India is part of the popular memory.
(i) What is meant by the post-communist countries ?
(ii) Explain any two factors responsible for strong relations between India and Russia.
(iii) How are India’s relations with Russia an important aspect of India’s foreign policy ?
(i) The cold war was an ideological conflict, a matter of power rivalries. It was a series of ideologies, sociological and political confrontations between the United States and Soviet Union, backed by their respective allies.

(ii) India took care to stay away from both the power blocs. It raised a voice against the newly decolonised countries becoming a part of these alliances. India favoured active intervening in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries.

(iii) Non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions and stances that served its interests rather than the interests of the superpowers and their allies.
India was often able to balance one superpower against the other. If India felt ignored or unduly pressurised by one superpower, it could tilt towards the others, neither alliance or power could take India for granted.
(i) Post-Communist countries were the former Soviet republics which gave up communism after undergoing shock therapy.

(ii) Russia and India share a vision of a multipolar world order. Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Since India is an oil importing nation, Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its oil crises. Russia is important for India’s nuclear energy plans and assisted India’s space industry by giving the Cryogenic rocket when India needed it. This is another reason for the strong ties of relationship between the two countries.

(iii) Relationship with Russia is the key pillar of India’s foreign policy. Under the special and privileged partnership, the two countries share several institutionalized dialogue mechanisms and operate at both political and officials levels to ensure regular interactive and follow up cooperation activities. They help India maintain very peaceful relations with Russia without strongly aligning to its ideology.

Question 18.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow :
All proponents of human security agree that its primary goal is the protection of individuals. However, there are differences about precisely what threats individuals should be protected from. Proponents of the ‘narrow’ concept of human security focus on violent threats to individuals.
(i) Which type of security is the main concern of ‘human security’ ?
(ii) What would you like to include under the ‘broad’ concept of human security ?
(iii) Identify any four threats from which individuals should be protected. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) Human security reveals a people-centered and multi-discripilinary understanding of security It involves a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies arid human rights.

(ii) The broad concept of human security includes threats from hunger, diseases and natural disasters which kill more people than war, genocide and terrorism combined.

(iii) Terrorism: It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately, and indiscriminately. Health Epidemics: Like HIV, AIDS, bird flue and SARS have rapidly spread across country.
Human Rights: Individuals need to be protected from human rights violation and exploitation. People try to exploit and deprive others of their basic human rights, which leads to a lot of problems.
Global Poverty: Global poverty is another source of insecurity. This threatens human beings, their lives, their health and their living standards.

Question 19.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow :
India did not follow any of the two known paths to development. Elements from both these models were taken and mixed together in India. That is why Indian economy was described as ‘mixed economy’.
(i) Name the two models /paths to development.
(ii) Why was either of the two models not fully accepted by India ? Give at least one major reason for each.
(iii) Highlight any two features of India’s mixed economy based on the above said two models. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
India is not the only country to have experienced the dominance of one party. If we look around the world, we find many other examples of one- party dominance.But there is a crucial difference between these and the Indian experience. In the rest of the cases the dominance of one party was ensured by compromising democracy. In some countries like China, Cuba and Syria the constitution permits only a single party to rule the country.
(i) Which political party dominated the political scene of India after independence and how long ?
(ii) How did the one-party dominance in India differ from that of China ?
(iii) Highlight any two drawbacks of a single party rule.
(i) (1) Capitalist model
(2) Socialist model.

(ii) India did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector nor did it follow the socialist model in which private property was abolished and all the production was controlled by the state.

(iii) Mixed economy is an economy where both private and public sector co-exist together. Its basic features are :

  • Both the sectors work within invisible lands of market forces and visible lands of planning set by government.
  • ‘State owned’ means of production is present for social welfare and ‘private owned’ means of production is present to be regulated by states. All individuals have freedom to produce goods and products.

(i) Congress dominated the political scene of India after independence for more than 50 years.

(ii) India is not the only country to havejdominance of one party, we have some other-examples for the same. However, the dominance of one party in Indian democracy does not compromise with democratic spirit of constitution whereas in China, the constitution only permits the presence of a single party, thus compromising with the spirit of democracy.

(iii) One party system stifles public sector innovation. The rule become corrupt and nepotistic. One party dominance allows for authoritarian rule. This kind of government is the unpopular kind for people are not allowed to express contradictory thoughts, they are left out of decision making process.

Question 20.
Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the following questions :
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2019 Delhi 1
(i) Which part of this cartoon is related to China ?
(ii) Assess the strength of China on the basis of the cartoon.
(iii) “China may be the next superpower in the world.” Justify the statement with two arguments. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) The China wall shown is related to China.
(ii) Its economy, together with other factors such as population landmass, human capital, resources, regional location and political influence makes it a very strong and powerful country. Its strength is emphasised with the picturization of Dragon.

(iii) A superpower is defined as a country that has global influence over others in cultural, technological, military and political spheres, and China is emerging as a strong contender for the position. China is the world’s top exporting and trading country, having exported $430.3 billion worth of goods into the US in 2017. The sheer size of its population (over one billion people), combinecUvith a growing middle class has given the Country unrivaled buying power. China has become the most important destination for foreign direct Investment. Its entry in WTO has further helped to shape its future economic order.

Question 21.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2019 Delhi 2
In the political outline map of India given above, five states have been marked as (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E). Identify these states on the basis of information given below and write their correct names in your answer book along with the respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabet in the map as per the following format.

Sr. no. of the Information used Concerned Alphabet in the Map Name of the State

(i) The state where a violent incident took place at Godhara in 2002.
(ii) The state which was earlier known as Madras.
(iii) The state which has the maximum number of seats in India in its Legislative Assembly.
(iv) The state to which Laldenga belonged.
(v) The state which integrated with India in 1975 as 22nd State of India. [1 x 5 = 5]

Sr. no. of the Information used Concerned Alphabet in the Map

Name of the State

(i) C Gujarat
(ii) E Tamil Nadu
(iii) D Uttar Pradesh
(iv) A Mizoram
(v) B Sikkim

Section – E

Question 22.
Describe any four reforms purposed by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) for the development of least developed countries. [6]
The Non-aligned countries were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) — and the . challenge they faced was to be more developed. Economic development was also vital for the ‘ independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free and then be dependent on richer countries. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realization.
Reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972.

  • To give the LDC’s complete control over their natural resources exploited by the developed Western countries.
  • To obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
  • To reduce the cost of technology from the western countries.
  • To provide the LDCs (Least developed countries) with a greater role in international economic institutions.

Question 23.
Explain the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka and any two consequences of it. [3 x 2 = 6]
Explain any three major events that affected the relations between India and China.
The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs. But their demand for more autonomy for provinces populated by the Tamils was repeatedly denied. By 1980s, several political organisation were formed demanding an independent Tamil Eelam state in eastern part of Sri Lanka.

The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a civil war. As a result, thousands of people of both the communities were killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livehood.
India sent IPKF forces which could not attain any success and earned the enmity of Tamil people.
The major events which affected the Indo-China relations are as examined below :
(i) Great Powers: Before the advent of western imperialism, both were great powers. However, there was limited interactions between the two and neither country was very familiar with the other.

(ii) Hindi Chini-Bhai-Bhai: After independence for a brief period, the two countries came closer and the slogan Hindi Chini bhai-bhai became popular.

(iii) Tibet and Border Conflict: Chinese takeover of Tibet and border conflicts had a negative effect on their relationship. Along with this, India’s decision to provide asylum to Dalai Lama also strained their relationship. Diplomatic relations between the two countries downgraded until 1976.

(iv) Change in China’s political leadership: After a change iii political leadership, the policy become more pragmatic and less ideological. A series of dialogue to resolve the border issue were initiated in 1981.

(v) Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China and its outcomes: December 1988 and Rajiv Gandhi’s visit improved the relations. Measures to maintain peace were taken.

Question 24.
Analyse India’s stand on environment issues discussed at the international level. [6]
Evaluate the cultural consequenes of globaliza-tion.
The main principles of India’s stand on environmental issues are mentioned below :

  • India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto . protocol in August 2002.
  • At the G-8 meeting in June 2005, India pointed out that the per capita emission rates of developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world.
  • India believes in the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and therefore is of the view that the major responsibility of curbing the emissions rests with the developed countries, which have accumulated emissions over a long period of time.
  • India’s international negotiation position relies heavily on principles of historical responsibility as enshrined in UNFCCC.
  • India has initiated different programme and policies such as National Auto-Fuel Policy, the Energy Conservation Act 2001, Electricity Act 2003 to help improve the environment.
  • India has suggested that SAARC countries should adopt a common position on major global environment issues because that will make a greater impact.

Effects of globalization may be positive as well as negative :
(i) External influences simply enlarge our choies and sometiems they modify our culture without overwhelming the tradition. For example, the burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and, therefore, does not pose any real challenge. In the same way blue jeans can go well with a homespun Khadi Kurta.

(ii) Globalisation broadened our cultural oudook and promotes cultural homogenisation. While cultural homogenisation. While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisaztion, the above process also generates precisely the opposite effect. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. This process is called cultural heterogenisation.

(iii) The culture of a developed society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society and the world begins to look more like a dominant power which it wishes to be.

(iv) This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity, for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.

Question 25.
Explain any six consequences of the partition of India in 1947. [1 x 6 = 6]
Consequences of partition of India in ‘ 1947:

  • The year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that human history has known.
  • There were killing and atrocities on both sides of the border in the name of religion. People of one community ruthlessly killed and mained people of the other community.
  • Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border. They were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage.
  • People were forced to abandon their homes and move across the border. Some princely states resisted merger with Union of India.
  • Women were killed by their own family members to preserve family honour. Many children were separated from their parents.
  • All the writers and poets in various fields expressed their grief and anger.
  • Minorities on both sides of border, fled from their homes and secured temporary shelter in refugee camps.

Question 26.
Describe any three important events that led to the split in the Congress Party in 1969. [3 x 2 = 6]
Describe any three events that led to the imposition of emergency in 1975.
Three causes of the split in the congress party in 1969 :
(i) Differences with the syndicate: After the 1967 elections, PM Indira Gandhi had to deal with the syndicate, a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the congress, who had played major role in her election as the leader of the party.
These leader expected her to follow their advice. However, Indira Gandhi gradual attempted to strengthen her position and carefully sidelined the Syndicate. Their rivalry came in the open in 1969 over the presidential elections following President Zakir Hussain’s death and also differences over the reforms introduced by Indira Gandhi.

(ii) Presidential Elections 1969: Following President Zakir Hussain death, the post of the president of India fell vacant in 1969. Despite Mrs. Gandhi’s reservations, the ‘Syndicate’ nominated her long time opponent, N. Sanjeeva Jleddy as the official congress candidate. In Gandhi retaliated by encouraging Vice-president V. V Giri to file his nomination as an independent candidate. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy formalised the split in the party into congress (organisation) and that led by Indira Gandhi as congress (Requisitionists).

(iii) Reforms by Indira Gandhi: Revolutionary steps taken by Indira Gandhi were not welcomed by the Congress leaders. She had launched a series of initiatives like public distribution of food grains, land reforms, nationalisation of fourteen private banks a abolition of the ‘privy purse’ or the special privileges given to former princess. Her policies were opposed by Morarji Desai and older leaders, too, had serious reservations about this left programme.
Circumstances that led to imposition of emergency :

  • Clash between the executive (Government) and judiciary.
  • The government diverted all energies for the maintenance of law and order, as a result development was not taking place.
  • Students’ movements in Bihar and Gujarat against price rise and corruption.
  • Railway strike led by George Fernandes.
  • A big rally at Ram Lila Maidan and call to the employees including police/army not to obey the undemocratic orders.
  • Judgements of Allahabad High Court setting aside the election of Indira Gandhi.
    All these led to the atmosphere of distrust against Indira Gandhi who hurriedly tried to save her position by imposing emergency.

Question 27.
Assess any three benefits of the coalition governments in India since 1989. [3 x 2 = 6]
Analyse any three main causes of unrest in Jammu and Kashmir.
The new era of coalition politics emphasises on pragmatic considerations rather than on ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement.
(i) Coalition politics has shifted the focus of’ political parties from ideological diferences to power sharing arragements. Thus most parties of the NDA did not agree with the Hindutva ideology of the BJP, yet they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.

(ii) It eliminates the fear of one-party dictatorship like that of congress and shows emergence of pragmatic politics.

(iii) Different groups and religions can be represented in the government due to various regional and smaller political parties.
When Maharaja of Kashmir signed the Instrument of Accession with Government of India, it was also agreed upon that once the situation got normalized, the views of the people of J & K would be ascertained about their future. India agreed to maintain the autonomy of Jammu and Kashmir. Since then, the politics of J & K always remained controversial and conflict ridden for both external and internal reasons. Externally, Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir valley should be part of Pakistan. There is a dispute within Kashmir about the status of the state within the Indian Union. This makes the people of Kashmir feel isolated and alone.

Internally, there is a dispute about the status of Kashmir within the Indian union. Kashmir was given a special status by Article 370 and 371 in Indian Constitution. Article 370 gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir compared to other States of India. The State has its own Constitution. All provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to the State. Laws passed by the Parliament apply to Jammu & Kashmir only if the State agrees. This special status has provoked two opposite reactions. There is a section of people outside of J & K that believes that the special status of the State conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the State with India.

Terrorism is also one of the major causes of unrest in Kashmir valley. Innocent civilians and border force officers are killed and captured in cease-fire violations and major attacks almost every day. This causes a lot of unrest in the Kashmir Valley.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2019 Delhi Set – II

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

Question 1.
Highlight any one democratic value which the bureaucratic and authoritarian Soviet System lacked? [1]
What is meant by ‘Western Alliance’ formed during the cold war period?
The Soviet system lacked political accountability and concept of the law. It became bureaucratic and authoritarian.
The alliance systems led by the two superpowers had divided the world into two blocks. The Western Alliance was a group of West-European states led by the US, which adopted capitalism and liberal democracy. It was formalised into an organisation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them in Europe or North America would be regarded as an attack on all of them.

Question 5.
Identify anyone similarity between the United Front Government 1996 and the National Front Government of 1989. [1]
Both of these coalitions represented powerful regional assertion. The United Front of October, 1996 was similar to the National Front of 1989 for it included Janata Dal and several other regional parties. Their liberalization policies were also similar to each other.

Question 9.
Analyse the thesis propounded by E. V. Ramaswami Naicker popularly known as Periyar. [2]
E. V. Ramaswami Naicker popularly known as Periyar, was a strong supporter of atheism and was famous for his anti-caste struggle. He rediscovered Dravid and later founded Dravid Kazhagam in opposition to Hindi and domination of North-India. He propounded the thesis about North Indians and Brahmins being Aryans. He opposed Brahmin dominance and asserted regional pride againt dominance of North.

Question 13.
Explain any two arguments given by the advocates of economic globalization. [4]
Any three effects of globalisation on the economy of a country :
(i) Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe. The restrictions imposed by different countries on allowing imports from other countries have been reduced. Similarly, the restrictions on movement of capital across countries have also been reduced. This means that investors can invest their money in other countries, including developing countries where they might get better returns.

(ii) Globalisation has led to similar economic policies being adopted by governments in different {iarts of the world, that has generated different outcomes in different parts of the world. Economic globalisation has created an intense divide of opinion all over the world, since the same set of policies do not lead to the same results everywhere.

(iii) Globalisation generates greater economic growth and well being for larger sections of the population, when there is de-regulation. Greater trade among countries allows each economy to do its best which would benefit the whole world. Globalisation has increased interdependence and integration between government businesses and ordinary people in different parts of the world.

Question 16.
What is meant by ‘Privy Purse’ ? Evaluate the role played by Indira Gandhi in the abolition of Privy purses. [1 + 3 = 4]
Privy purse was measured on the basis of extent of revenue and potential of the merging state and an assurance was given at the time of integration of princely states that the ruler’s family would be allowed to retain certain private property.

Privy purses were criticised and the privileges given to princely states at the time of accession, integration and consolidation were protested.

Hence, some leaders like Indira Gandhi insisted on abolishing the privy purses because hereditary privilegers were not constant with the principle of equality, social and economic justice in constitution.
In the elections of 1967, Indira Gandhi made this a major election issue and got a lot of public support. With a massive victory in 1971 election, the constitution was amended to temove legal obstacles for abolition of privy purses.

Question 22.
Describe any six features of the erstwhile Soviet System. [6]
Describe briefly the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Soviet system gave preference to the state and the institution of the party. This system centered around the Communist party and no other politial party coud be formed and elected. The economy was also planned and controlled by the state.
Few features of the Soviet system :

  • The Soviet system was very bureaucratic and authoritarian.
  • There was lack of democracy and absence of freedom of speech. No other political party was allowed, Soviet system centred around the Communist Party.
  • All the institutions were under direct control, the decisions were biased and arbitrary and the board which decided the course of action was unaccountable to anyone.
  • Russians dominated everything and people from other regions felt neglected and often suppressed.
  • The party refused to recognise the urge of people to manage their own affairs including social and cultural affairs.
  • The institutions of the Soviet state needed reforms, only one party system was prevalent. The party however, did not recognise the aspirations and feelings of people.
  • The Government subsidised basic needs of people including health, education child care and other welfare schemes.

The Soviet union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba and decided to convert it into a Russian base. This had put the US under direct target from a close range, leading to a situation where a clash seemed inevitable. This was known as Cuban Missile Crisis.

Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union and received both diplomatic and financial aid from it, Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union decided to convert Cuba into Russian base as geographically, Cuba was located within a short distance from USA and also because she was worried that the Americans might overtake Cuba, overthrow Fidel castro, and use it against them in 1962.

Three weeks after the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, the Americans became aware of it.
American president Kennedy ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to cuba as a way of warning the USSR of his seriousness. Cuban missile crisis didn’t break out in a hot war but it is often considered as a high point in the cold war.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2019 Delhi Set – III

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

Question 1.
Why did Boris Yeltsin oppose the coup that took place in the Soviet Union in 1991 ? [1]
How did the non-aligned countries play a role in reducing Cold War conflicts ?
A coup took place in 1991 which was encouraged by Communist Party hardliners. Boris Yelstin opposed the coup because he was against the centralised control.
Non-alignment offered the newly decolonised countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America a third option—not to join either alliance. They started spreading the message of peaceful co-existence and mutual cooperation and also intervened in their activities, in order to soften the blow. It culminated the growing cold war tensions.

Question 5.
Explain the main recommendation of the Mandal Commission. [1]
It was established in 1979 by Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morar Ji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward classes. The commission recommended 27% reservation in jobs and other areas for such classes.

Question 6.
Who was the last President of the Soviet Union and for how long ? [1 + 1 = 2]
Why did Jawaharlal Nehru say that non-alignment was not a policy of ‘fleeing away’? [2]
Mikhail Gorbachev was the last president of the Soviet Union and he served as president of the Soviet Union from 10th March, 1985 to December 1991.
India’s policy was neither negative nor passive. It was not a policy of ‘fleeing away’. On the contrary, India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries. India tried to reduce the differences between the alliances and thereby prevent differences from escalating into a full-scale war. Indian diplomats and leaders to communicated and mediated between Cold War rivals such as in the Korea War.

Question 9.
“Jammu and Kashmir comprises of some social and political regions.” Support the statement with any two examples from any two regions. [2 × 1 = 2]

  • Jammu and Kashmir comprises three major social and political regions—Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
  • Jammu region comprises of foothills and plains inhabited by an equal ratio of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs and speakers of various languages,
  • Kashmir region is the Kashmir valley, the people here are Kashmiri speaking and mostly Muslim with a small population of Kashmiri Hindus.

Question 13.
Explain any two arguments given by the advocates of political globalization. [4]
The primacy base of the state continues to be the unchallenged basis of political communin’. The state continues to discharge its essential functions (law and order, national security) and consciously withdraws from certain domains from which it wishes to. States continue to be important.

In some respects, state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalization, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens. With this information, the state is better able to rule.

Question 14.
Whom did the two factions of the Communist Party support, after its split in 1964 and why ? [2 x 2 = 4]
A. K. Gopalan, S. A. Dange, E.M.S. Namboodlnipad, P. C. Joshi, Ajay Ghoshand P. Sundar raja were among the notable leaders of the CPI. The Party went through a major split in 1964 following the ideological rift between Soviet Union and China. The pro-Soviet faction remained as the CPI, while the opponents formed the CPI(M). Both these parties continue to exist to this day.

Question 16.
Analyse the consequences of the defeat of the official Congress candidate in the Presidential election of 1969. [1 + 3 = 4]
The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalized the split in the Congress party. The Congress President expelled the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi from the party. Indira Gandhi claimed that her group was the real Congress. By November 1969, the Congress group led by the ‘Syndicate’ came to be referred to as the Congress (Organization) and the group led by Indira Gandhi came to be called the Congress (Requisitionists). These two parties were also described as Old Congress and New Congress. Indira Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divide between Socialist and Conservatives, between the pro-poor and the pro-rich.

Question 22.
Mention any six reasons responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union. [3 + 3 = 6]
Name the five founder leaders of NAM along with the countries they belong to. Which three factors were the culmination of the non-aligned Summit of 1961 in Belgrade.”
(i) Economic weakness: The weakness of the economy was the major cause of dissatisfication among the people in USSR. People were dissatisfied with huge military spending and expenditure on satellite states.

(ii) Political un-accountability: There was widespread corruption, nepotism and lack of transparency, which led to loss of trust and faith in Soviet system.

(iii) Gorbachev’s reforms: People started to enjoy freedom under Michael Gorbachev’s reforms, they began to demand more. The demand grew into a big force which turned difficult to control.

(iv) Rise of Nationalism : Rise of nationalism among countries like Russia, Baltic republic, Georgia etc., is the most important and immediate cause of disintegration of the USSR.

(v) Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well.

vi) With the public perception of the Soviet government declining each day ambitions aspirations for Independence were created in countries like Estonia, Ukraine.
The founding leaders of the NAM were :

  • Jawaharlal Nehru : Prime Minsiter, India.
  • Josip Broz Tito : President, Yugoslavia.
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser : President, Egypt.
  • Sukarno : President, Indonesia.
  • Kwame Nkrumah : President, Ghana.

In a broader context, the major factor contributing to the organisation of the conference was the impact of decolonization, and the founding of a great number of newly independent African states on the world stage in the 1960s.

Non-alignment movement was the division of the newly independent government aroufld the two opposed factions established in the Wake of the government.
The first non-aligned summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. This was the culmination of at least three factors : (i) cooperation among these five countries, (ii) growing Cold War tensions and its widening arenas and (iii) the dramatic entry of many newly decolonised African countries into the international arena. By 1960, there were 16 new African members in the UN.

Question 23.
Explain Nepal’s transition from monarchy to democracy. [6]
How has European Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one? Explain.
Nepal was a Hindu kingdom in the past and then a constitutional monarchy in the modern period for many years. Throughout this period, political parties and the common people of Nepal have wanted a more open and responsive system of government. But the king, with the help of the army, retained full control over the government and restricted the expansion of democracy in Nepal. The king accepted the demand for a new democratic constitution in 1990, however, after a strong movement demanding democracy. But democratic governments had a short and troubled career. During the nineties, the Maoists of Nepal who believed in armed insurrection against the monarch and the ruling elite fought tooth and nail against the armed , forces of the king. There was also a triangular conflict among the monarchist forces, the democrats and the Maoists.

In 2002, the king abolished the parliament and dismissed the government, thus ending even the limited democracy that existed in Nepal. In April 2006, there were massive, country wide, prodemocracy protests. The struggling pro-democracy forces achieved their first major victory when the king was forced to restore the House of Representatives that had been dissolved in April 2002. The largely non-violent movement was led by the Seven Party Alliance (SPA), the Maoists and social activists. Nepal formed a constituent assembly to draft the constitution. The Maoist groups agreed to suspend armed struggle. They wanted the constitution to include the radical programmes of social and economic restructuring. The Maoists and some other political groups were also deeply suspicious of the Indian government and its role in the future of Nepal. In 2008, Nepal became a democratic republic after abolishing the monarchy In 2015, it adopted a new constitution.
The European union has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one. The EU has started to act more as a nation state, while the attempts to have a constitution for the EU have failed. It has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealing with other nations. The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc. The process has not proved to be easy, for people in many countries are not very enthusiastic in giving the EU powers that were exercised by the government of their country. EU (European Union) initially started as economic power and has now become a major political power too. This is explained as below :

  • EU foundation was laid for a common foreign and security policy cooperation, with its own flag, anthem and currency. It also has a common foreign and security policy to deal with other nations.
  • The EU is the world’s biggest economy Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US Dollar. Its share in world trade is 3 times larger than that of US.
  • Now, the EU also has political and diplomatic influence. Two members of EU, Britain and France, hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme.
  • Its use of diplomacy economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military forces has been effective.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers