Reading Comprehension: The word comprehension means understanding. In English grammar, our comprehension skills are tested by reading text, understanding its meaning and interpreting a passage and answering the related question. So let us learn how to effectively grasp and interpret a comprehension and other such reading comprehension skills required in exams. Download 25+ Reading Comprehension PDF to access it in offline without Internet. These reading comprehension strategies have research-based evidence for improving text comprehension.
- Skim once as rapidly as possible to determine the main idea before you look at the questions. Don’t worry about words you don’t know at this stage.
- Underline the words that you do not understand to facilitate a complete understanding of the passage. This will enable you to solve the vocabulary questions quicker.
- Look through questions carefully. You are advised to keep to the order in which the questions appear in the test paper. Read intensively the portion relevant to the answers.
- Concentrate on the vocabulary items and puzzle out the meaning of any words you don’t know from the context.
Most passages require at least two readings
- Before writing the answer, check the questions again to be sure you’ve really understood them.
- You must write complete sentences as answers.
- Answers must be relevant and to the point. If the question is for one mark given one point. If it is for two marks give at least two points unless specified differently in the paper.
Steps to Follow Skimming for the Main Ideas
- Read the title of the passage / poem carefully. Determine what clues it gives you as to what the passage /
poem is about.
- Watch for key words like ’causes, ’’results, ’’effects, ’etc. Do not overlook signal words such as those
suggesting controversy (e.g., ’versus, ’’pros and cons’), which indicate that the author is planning to present
but sides of an argument.
- Concentrate on the main ideas and ignore the details.
How to Approach Reading Comprehension Questions
The ‘why’ question
In the ‘why’ question you are required to give reasons, provide explanations and give evidence for an answer. It is essential therefore, to look out for word that show cause, effect and purpose in order to arrive at the answer. These words are:
(i) Cause word; Cause words signal the cause or reason for an event or an action. These include:
(ii) Effect words; effect words signal the result of an event or an action. These include:
(iii) Purpose words ; purpose words indicate the reason for an event or an action. These include :
The inference question
In the inference question you are required to make a deduction or draw a conclusion based on the information given in the passage. Since these are not straightforward questions, it is essential therefore, to read between the lines for clues or hidden meanings. This can be done by understanding certain key words and phrases. At times, you can draw an inference only after reading the entire poem / passage.
The rephrasing question
At times you are required to explain a word/phrase in your own words or substitute a word/phrase in the
passage without altering its meaning. To do so it is essential to understand the word/phrase in its context.
So it is essential to read carefully what comes before and after it
When you react passage or a poem, you will come across words that are unfamiliar. However, you don’t
need to look up the meaning of every new word or expression that you come across. When you have
finished reading the passage, try to understand the overall meaning of the passage. Try to guess the
meaning of unfamiliar words/ expressions from the context. For this you need to look for clues in the text
Unseen Passage के questions के answers लिखते समय ध्यान देने योग्य बिन्दु
- सबसे पहले passage को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़कर समझना है।
- इसके पश्चात् questions को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़कर समझना है।
- फिर, passage को पुनः ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ने के साथ-साथ प्रश्नों के उत्तरों को भी underline करते जाना है।
- Passage में या questions में कुछ कठिन शब्द आ सकते हैं, जिनका अर्थ आपको नहीं आता हो। घबरायें नहीं। कठिन शब्द जिस वाक्य/प्रश्न में आ रहा है उस पूरे वाक्य/प्रश्न का अनुमानित भाव क्या निकल रहा है, इस आधार पर उस कठिन शब्द का अर्थ समझने का प्रयास करें।
- Question जिस tense में है, answer भी उस ही tense में देना है।
- उत्तर to the point होना चाहिए व Correct English में होना चाहिए।
- Passage में पूछे गये questions निम्न question words से आरंभ हो सकते हैं, जिनके अर्थ व
आशय निम्न प्रकार हैं—
Who कौन/किसने/किन्होंने आदि व्यक्ति के बारे में सूचना देनी है। Whose किसका/किसकी/किसके आदि व्यक्ति/वस्तु/स्थान आदि से सम्बन्ध/ | स्वामित्व की सूचना देनी है। Whom किससे/किसको/किसके/किसे आदि व्यक्ति के विषय में सूचना देनी है। Which कौनसा/कौनसी व्यक्ति/वस्तुविचार/प्राणी आदि के बारे में सूचना देनी है। What क्या/कौनसा/कौनसी आदि वस्तु/विचार आदि के बारे में सूचना देनी है। When कब/किस समय समय से सम्बन्धित समस्त सूचना देनी है। Where कहाँ/किस जगह स्थान से सम्बन्धित समस्त सूचना देनी है। Why क्यों/किसलिए कारण बताने/जानने के लिए। How कैसे/कितने/कितनी/ किस साधन से आदि कार्य कैसे हुआ या किस ढंग से हुआ था | किस तरीके से हुआ या उम्र या हालत जानने के लिए। How much कितना/कितनी मात्रा या मूल्य बताने/जानने के लिए। How many कितने/कितनी संख्या बताने/जानने के लिए। How long कब तक/कब से समयावधि बताने/जानने के लिए। How far कितनी दूर दूरी से सम्बन्धित सूचना के लिए। How old कितना बड़ा/कितना पुराना उम्र से सम्बन्धित सूचना के लिए । How often कितनी बार/कब-कब बारंबारता की सूचना के लिए।
उत्तर देते समय ध्यान रखने योग्य विशेष बिन्दु :
(i) यदि प्रश्न में does सहायक क्रिया आई है और उत्तर साधारण वाक्य (affirmative sentence) में देना है तो verb की first form के साथ नियमानुसार s या es को use करें । does हटा दें; जैसेWhere does she go everyday? She goes everyday to her office.
(ii) यदि प्रश्न में does सहायक क्रिया व not है तो केवल verb की first form का ही use करें तथा s या es न लगायें। does न हटायें; जैसे
(iii)यदि प्रश्न में doसहायक क्रिया आई है व प्रश्न का उत्तर affirmative sentence (साधारण वाक्य) में देना है तो do को हटा दें व verb की first form का ही use करें तथा ‘s’ या ‘es’ न लगायें; जैसे
(iv) यदि प्रश्न में do सहायक क्रिया Interrogative-Negative वाक्य में आई है व उत्तर Negative वाक्य में देना है तो do को subject के बाद लिखना है व वाक्य में verb की first form का use करना है। ‘s’ या ‘es’ नहीं लगाना है; जैसे
(v) यदि प्रश्न में did सहायक क्रिया आई है व उत्तर affirmative sentence में देना है तो did को हटा दें व verb की second form को use करें; जैसे
(vi) यदि प्रश्न में did सहायक क्रिया Interrogative-Negative Sentence में आई है व उत्तर | negative sentence में देना है तो did व verb की first form का use करें; जैसे
(vii) Why से आरंभ होने वाले प्रश्नों के उत्तरों में सामान्यतः because लगाकर उपवाक्य लिखा जाता है। किन्तु कुछ उत्तर में to + infinitive का use भी हो सकता है; जैसे
(viii) यदि प्रश्न में “there’ मध्य भाग (medieval position) में आता है तो उत्तर सामान्यतः there से ही आरंभ होते हैं; जैसे
(ix) यदि प्रश्न में when-clause हो तो उत्तर देते समय when-clause को पहले लिखें ताकि sense में सटीकता रहे; जैसे
Reading Comprehension PDF | Unseen Passages
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 1
The seasonal problem of water taps running dry is plaguing most of our major cities. With the bigger rivers flowing in trickles and ponds and wells reduced to clay-pits, village women in remote areas have to fetch every drop of water for drinking, cooking, washing and so on, across large distances. This has only worsened a perennial problem, that of widespread pollution of water, rendering it unfit for human consumption. The monsoons—and the attendant floods—will not solve this problem. The Delhi Administration is seriously worried about the threat to civic health posed by the polluted waters of the Jamuna. Two new tanks are to be set up to treat sewage. At present only 60 per cent of the 200 million gallons of the city’s sewage receives any kind of treatment before it is dumped into the river which supplies water not only to this city but to innumerable towns and villages downstream. The Ganga, the Jamuna, the Cauvery, in fact all our important rivers, serving many urban conglomerations are fast becoming a major source of disease.
A comprehensive bill, introduced in Parliament recently, envisages the setting up of Central and State boards for the prevention and control of water pollution. But it will obviously take some time before legislation is passed and effectively implemented. Meanwhile the problem continues to swell. r
According to a survey of eight developing countries conducted a couple of years ago, 90 per cent of all child deaths were due to water-borne diseases. It is the same unchanged story today. In a country like India, a burgeoning population continuing to use the open countryside as a lavatory means that, with every dust storm and rain, human excreta laden with germs and parasite spores find their way to ponds, shallow wells and even the streams and rivers. Only 18 per cent of the rural folk have access to potable water.
Reading Comprehension Questions I :
- Which seasonal problem plagues our major cities?
- How do the women fulfil need of water?
- How has water pollution become a health hazard? ’
- What does the bill introduced in Parliament envisage?
- How can sewage system be improved?
- What has the survey of developing countries revealed?
- How is human excreta a major source of disease in India? ‘
- Which new threat is the writer talking about?
Find out a word from the passage which means :
- countless .
Unseen Passage Answers 1
- The scarcity of water is a seasonal problem that plagues most of our major cities.
- The women fetch water across large distances to fulfil their need.
- The pollution of water makes it unfit for human consumption and also a source of disease.
- The bill introduced in Parliament envisages setting up of Central and State boards for the prevention and control of water pollution.
- Sewage system can be improved by setting up two new tanks.
- The survey of eight developing countries has revealed that 90 per cent of all child deaths are due to water-borne diseases.
- The human excreta from the open countryside finds its way into the sources of water. The germs and parasites carried by it spread diseases.
- The writer is talking about the threat of untreated industrial waste being dumped into rivers.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 2
Srinivasa Ramanujan was one of the greatest mathematical genius of the world. Born in a poor Brahmin family, he gave no indication of his hidden talent. He was born at Erode in Coimbatore in 1887. His father was an accountant to a cloth merchant who had to maintain a large family on a small income. Srinivasa was granted half exemption of fees when he stood first in the Primary School Examination in the whole of Tanjore District.
From his childhood Ramanujan was of a quiet and dreamy temperament. He had answer to all sums that puzzled his classmates and seniors. Figures did not worry him, no calculation was too difficult for him. Things which were dark and muddled to his class-mates were as clear as daylight to him. He always helped them with generosity which was the most lovable feature of his character all through his career.
When he was in second class his curiosity upon the subject of the “Highest Truth” in Mathematics was roused. Later on when he moved into the Third Standard, he asked for problems of Mathematics of higher nature. While in Fourth Standard, he could solve the most difficult problems of Trigonometry. He obtained Ewler’s Theorems and proved them. He followed Carr’s Synopsis of Pure Mathematics. He solved all the problems without any other book to aid him. To him each solution was a triumph which encouraged him to a fresh endeavour.
Ramanujan won Subramanyam Scholarship usually awarded for proficiency in English as well as Mathematics. But the passion for Mathematics gained on him, he neglected all other subjects so much that he failed to gain promotion to higher class, thereby losing his scholarship. This was a great calamity of which he had never dreamt. He had no money, no means of earning, no books, no influence. No help came to him from outside. He was now eighteen without any definite plan. He joined Pachaiyapsa’s college Madras (Now in Chennai) but had to return home due to illness.
Reading Comprehension Questions II :
- Where was Ramanujan born?
- How was Ramanujan inspired when he stood first in the Primary Examination?
- Why did he fail to get promotion to higher class?
- “Things which were all dark and muddled to his class-mates were as clear as
daylight to him.” How?
- How did Ramanujan show his talent in third standard?
- What was the unexpected calamity that befell Ramanujan?
- How was Ramanujan superior to his seniors?
Find out a word from the passage which means :
- sign . .
Unseen Passage Answers 2
- Ramanujan was bom at Erode in Coimbatore.
- Srinivasa was inspired by granting half exemption of fees.
- He failed to get promotion to higher class because the passion for Mathematics gained on him so much that he entirely neglected all other subjects and got failed in them.
- Ramanujan had hidden talent. Figures didn’t worry him. No calculation was too difficult for him. Thus, things were clear to him.
- Ramanujan showed his talent in Third Standard by asking for problems of Mathematics of higher nature.
- His failure to gain promotion to higher class along With loss of scholarship was the unexpected calamity.
- He had answer to all sums that puzzled his classmates and seniors. Thus, Ramanujan was superior to his seniors.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 3
The Aravali Range is affected from human activities like stone crushing, cutting of trees in forest area of Aravali, construction on large scale, mining, dispense and dumping of waste. Such activities affect the environment of Aravali and its surrounding areas environment. Some of the famous lakes like Badkhal lake, Dhauj Jheel, Surajkund Lake, Damdama Lake on the Aravaii range had gone dry in last five years because of illegal mining and change of pattern in the natural drainage system. These lakes are dumped with waste material which affected ground water flow. Drying of these lakes also indicates that in future ground water will be not available in this area if the relevant steps for recovery are not taken.
The mindless mining in one of the oldest hills in the world has devastated the range. In several places, the miners have gone so deep that the water table has been exposed, forming lakes amidst the blasted ranges. The Rajasamand lake in Udaipur, which always had water dried up recently.
In May 2009, after months of media “and public protests, along with several environmental groups, the Supreme Court banned mining in an area of 448 square km, across Faridabad, Gurgaon and Mewat districts in Haryana, that was once supposed to be set aside for a national park. This comes after SC’s earlier judgment in 1994 that allowed limited mining on the basis of the sustainable development principle and under strict guidelines, which were violated by local miners as the court ruled
The Supreme Court on February 20, 2010 directed cancellation of 157 mining leases operating in Rajasthan’s eco-sensitive Aravaii Hills and asked the Forest Survey of India to carry out satellite imagery of the entire 50,000 sq km range spread across 15 districts of the State to assess the extent of ecological damage. Giving four months time to the FSI to complete the task, the Special Bench of Chief Justice K.G. Balakrishnan, Justices S.H. Kapadia and Aftab Alam directed all mines in the area to stop operation till then.
The direction follows an earlier order passed by the Supreme Court in May 2009 freezing all mining activities along the Aravaii Range situated in Haryana.
Reading Comprehension Questions III :
- How is the Aravaii Range affected?
- Which activities are harmful to the Aravaii Hills?
- Why have some of the lakes on the Aravaii range gone dry?
- What does the dryness of these lakes indicate?
- When was mining banned across Faridabad, Gurgaon and Mewat districts in Haryana?
- How was the ecological damage across 15 districts of Rajasthan to be assessed?
- Who chaired the Special Bench of the Supreme Court?
Find out a word from the passage which means :
- shows that something exists
- instructions telling how to do something
- make a judgement about somebody/something
Unseen Passage Answers 3
- The Aravali range is affected from human activities like stone-crushing, cutting of trees, large scale construction, mining and dispense and dumping of waste.
- Activities like stone crushing, cutting trees, construction, mining and dispensing and dumping of waste are harmful.
- Some of the lakes on the Aravali range have gone dry because of the illegal mining and the change of pattern in the natural drainage system.
- The dryness of these lakes indicates that in future ground water won’t be available in this area if the relevant steps for recovery are not taken.
- Mining across Faridabad, Gurgaon and Mewat districts in Haryana was banned in May 2009.
- The ecological damage across 15 districts of Rajasthan was to be assessed by the satellite imagery.
- Then Chief Justice K.G. Balakrishnan chaired the Special Bench of the Supreme Court.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 4
There are two problems which cause great worry to our educationists—the problem of religious and moral instruction in a land of many faiths and the problem arising out of a large variety of languages.
Taking up the education of children we see that they should be trained to love one another, to be kind and helpful to all, to be tender to the lower animals and to observe and think right. The task of teaching them how to read and write and to count and calculate is important, but it should not make us lose sight of the primary aim of moulding personality in the right way.
For this, it is necessary to call into aid, culture, tradition and religion. But in our country we have, in the same school, to look after boys and girls bom in different faiths and belonging to families that live diverse ways of life and follow different forms of worship associated with different denominations of religion. It will not do to tread the easy path of evading the difficulty by attending solely to physical culture and intellectual education. We have to evolve a suitable technique and method for serving the spiritual needs of school children professing different faiths. We should thereby promote an atmosphere of mutual respect, a fuller understanding and helpful co-operation among the different communities in our society. Again we must remain one people and we have therefore to give basic training in our schools to speak and understand more languages than one and to appreciate and respect the different religions prevailing in India. It is not right for us in India to be dissuaded from this by considerations as to overtaking the young mind. What is necessary must be done. And it is not in the fact too great a burden.
Reading Comprehension Questions IV :
- Which two problems have our educationists to face?
- What is the primary aim of the education of children?
- How should the problem of religious and moral instruction be dealt with?
- Which basic training is the writer talking about?
- How can we serve the spiritual needs of school children?
- What type of atmosphere should be promoted?
- What is the basic training to give in our schools?
Find out a word from the passage which means :
Unseen Passage Answers 4
- Our educationists have to face the problems of—1. religious and moral education and, 2. the problem arising out of a large variety of languages.
- The primary aim of the education of children is to mould personality in the right way.
- The problem of religious and moral instruction to the children professing different faiths can be dealt with by evolving suitable technique and method.
- He is talking about giving the basic training in our schools to speak and understand more languages and to respect different religions.
- We can serve the spiritual needs of school children by evolving a suitable technique and method.
- An atmosphere of mutual respect should be promoted.
- The basic training to give in our schools is to speak and understand more languages.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 5
Doolittle. I do not care for the lecturing. I can lecture at length till they become blue in the face, and I will not show any signs of fatigue. It is his having made a gentleman of me that I object to. I never asked him to make a gentleman of me. I was happy and I was free. I pressed hard everybody for money when I wanted it, in the same way as I pressed you, Henry Higgins. Now I am worried. Now I am a prisoner and everybody requests me for money. It’s very lucky for me, says my lawyer. “Is it”? I ask him. I mean it’s a good thing for him. When I was a poor man and had to engage a lawyer once when they found a dead baby in the dust cart, he turned me out and shut his doors on me as quickly as he could. It was the same with the doctors. They used to push me out of the hospital before I could hardly stand on my legs, and I had nothing to pay. Now they find out that I’m not a healthy man and can’t live unless they look after me twice a day. In the house, I’m not allowed to do any work for myself; Somebody else must do it and demand payment from me for it. A year ago, I did not have a relative in the world except two or three that would not speak me. Now I have fifty relatives so poor that they do not earn even a decent week’s wages among the lot of them. I have to live for others and not for myself; that is middle class morality. You talk of losing Eliza. Don’t you be anxious. 1 bet she’s on my doorsteps by this time. She could support herself easily by selling flowers as I was not considered respectable enough. And the next one to demand money from me will be you, Henry Higgins. I’ll have to learn to speak middle class language from you, instead of speaking proper English which is natural to me. That is where you’ll come in and I dare say that is why you wrote the letter about me.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions V :
- To whom is Doolittle addressing?
- How was Doolittle living before being a gentleman?
- How did the lawyer and the doctors behave when Doolittle was poor?
- How many relatives had Doolittle when he was poor and how many are now?
- Why is the writer not allowed to do any work in his house?
- What is middle class morality?
- Which two types of English does the speaker mention here?
Find out a word from the passage which means :
- a feeling of being extremely tired
- a person who advises people about the law
- feeling worried or nervous.
Unseen Passage Answers 5
- Doolittle is addressing to Henry Higgins.
- Before being a gentleman Doolittle was living happily and freely. He would
press hard everybody for money when he wanted. •
- When Doolittle was poor, the lawyer shut his doors on him and the doctors used to push him out of the hospital.
- When Doolittle was poor, he had two or three relatives and now there are fifty and poor ones.
- The writer is not allowed to do any work in his house because somebody will do it for me.
- Live for others and not for yourself is the middle class morality.
- Middle class English and proper English are the two types of English.
- anxious .
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 6
Kisan Bapat Baburao Hazare was born on 15 Jan. 1940 at the village Ralegaon Siddhi in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. He is popularly recognized as Anna Hazare. He is at present 73-year-old bachelor. A book by Swami Vivekanand changed his course of fife. The book revealed to him that the ultimate motive of human life should be service to humanity. He realised that serving for the betterment of the common people is equivalent to offering a prayer to God. .
Anna is well known and respected for upgrading the ecology and economy of the village of Ralegaon Siddhi which is located in the drought prone Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra state. The erstwhile barren village has metamorphosed into a unique model of rural development due to its effective water conservation methods, which made the villagers self-sufficient. Earlier, the same village witnessed alcoholism, utter poverty and migration to urban slums. Inspired by Hazare’s unique approach of salvaging a hopeless village, the state government has implemented the ‘Model Village’ scheme as part of its official strategy. Hazare is now synonymous with rural development in India.
Anna Hazare is the face of India’s fight against corruption. He has taken that fight to the corridors of power and challenged the government at the highest level. People, the common man and well-known personalities alike, are supporting him in the hundreds swelling to the thousands.
Government has awarded Mr. Hazare with the Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan awards, the nation’s third and fourth highest civilian awards respectively, for his social work.
He lives on his pension from army service in a room in the temple in his village. He fought from the front to have Right to Information (RTI) implemented. He is fighting for the implementation of the Jan Lokpal Bill, the anticorruption bill.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions VI :
- What do you know about the birth of Kisan Bapat Baburao Hazare?
- How was his course of life changed?
- What did he realize after reading the book by Swami Vivekanand?
- What is equal to prayer to God?
- What did Ralegaon Siddhi witness earlier?
- Why is now Hazare synonymous with rural development in India?
- ‘Anna Hazare is the face of India’s fight against corruption.’ How?
- How has Hazare been honoured?
Find out a word from the passage which means :
Unseen Passage Answers 6
- Kisan Bapat Baburao Hazare was born on 15 Jan. 1940 at the village Ralegaon Siddhi in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra.
- His course of life was changed by a book of Swami Vivekanand. The book revealed that service to humanity is the ultimate motive of human life.
- After reading the book he realized that service to common people is equivalent to offer prayer to God.
- Serving for the betterment of the common people is equal to prayer to God.
- Ralegaon Siddhi witnessed alcoholism, utter poverty and migration.
- Anna Hazare’s inspirations and actions have metamorphased his own barren village into a unique model of rural development due to effective water conservation methods.
- He has taken the fight against corruption to the corridors of power with the support of the common people and well-known personalities.
- Anna Hazare has been honoured with the Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan awards.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 7
The Russian writer, Leo Tolstoy, gave up a life of wealth and comfort in order to help the poor. He taught that all types of violence were wicked and that all people ought to live together in love and to cooperate with one another. Gandhi was very much interested in his writings and teachings. Indeed the two great men must have been alike in many of their ideas.
In one of his stories Tolstoy describes a certain village in Russia where a peasant named Ivan lived. Everyone thought that he must be a very happy man, for he was comfortably off and lacked nothing that he needed. He had three sons, all of them were able to work. The eldest was married and the second was going to be married and the youngest was able to look after the horses. His wife was an extremely capable woman and his daughter-in-law was steady and hard-working. Ivan’s old father lived with them, but he was now an invalid and had no longer any control over his son. Their fields produced good crops and they had quite enough food for their own needs. All their clothes, coats, shirts, trousers, socks and dresses were made by the two women. Unfortunately, however, the members of the family were not nearly as contented as they ought to have been. This was because of a quarrel between them and their next-door neighbour, limping Gabriel.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions VII :
- How did Tolstoy show his love for the poor?
- What were Tolstoy’s teachings?
- Who were the two great men?
- Why were the Ivans not contented people?
- For which reason was Gandhi interested in Tolstoy?
- Why did everyone think that Ivan was a very happy man?
- What was the duty of Ivan’s youngest son?
- What kind of a women was Ivan’s wife?
- Find from the passage the word which is opposite of ‘eldest’
- Write the word from the passage which means ‘An ill and disabled person’.
Unseen Passage Answers 7
- Tolstoy showed his love for the poor by giving up a life of wealth and comfort in order to help the poor.
- Tolstoy’s teachings were that all types of violence were wicked and that all people ought to live together in love and to cooperate with one another.
- The two great men were Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy.
- The Ivans were not contented people because of a quarrel between them and their next-door neighbour, Limping Gabriel.
- Gandhi was interested in Tolstoy for the reason that they had similarity in many of their ideas.
- Everyone thought that Ivan was a very happy man because he was comfortably off and lacked nothing that he needed.
- The duty of Ivan’s youngest son was to look after the horses.
- Ivan’s wife was an extremely capable woman. All their clothes were made by her and her daughter-in-law.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 8
Thomas Alva Edison invented electric light. He loved to do experiments and to ask funny questions. Once he asked his teacher how the kites could fly without wings. The puzzled teacher thought him to be stupid and naughty and turned him out of the school. He was just eight years old when it happened. Edison’s best teacher was his mother. She answered his questions, helped and guided him.
One day he saw a bird. It ate some worms and Hew. Edison prepared a mixture of the pulped worms and made a maid servant drink it to see if she could also fly. He was warned by his mother not to repeat it. Once, he imitated a hen and sat down on her eggs to hatch them. But he only broke the eggs and spoiled his shorts.
He read a lot of books. He bought them with the pocket money he received. At the age of twelve Edison became a newspaper boy in the railway. Out of his new income he purchased more books and carried out his experiments. He also gave a dollar every night to his mother. He began to publish his own newspaper and made more money. With it he set up a small laboratory in his railway wagon. One day a bit of phosphorous fell down and caught fire. It burnt his newspapers. He was turned out of the job at the next station.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions VIII :
- He got money for his experiments—
(a) by selling newspapers. (b) by reading in a school.
(c) from pocket money. (d) by reading a lot of books.
- What did Edison ask his teacher one day?
- What did Edison ask his maid servant to do?
- Why did he buy more books?
- Where did Edison set up his laboratory?
- Frame two sentences of different context using the word ‘light’.
- Why did Edison’s mother warn him?
- How much money did Edison give to his mother daily?
- What was invented by Thomas Alva Edison?
- How did Edison’s mother help him?
Unseen Passage Answers 8
- (a) by selling newspapers,
- Edison asked his teacher how the kites could fly without wings.
- Edison asked his maid servant to drink the mixture of pulped worms.
- He bought more books to carryout his experiments.
- Edison set up his laboratory in his railway wagon.
- 1. The light of the sun is an unending source of energy.
2. A light purse makes a heavy heart.
- Edison’s mother warned him because he made a maid-servant drink a mixture of the pulped worms prepared by him to see if she could fly. The mother warned him not to repeat it.
- Edison gave a dollar every night to his mother.
- Electric light was invented by Thomas Alva Edison.
- Edison’s mother helped him by answering his questions and guiding him.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 9
Human ear is meant for receiving sound of normal range of decibels. Sound received beyond that measure would not only be jarring but also damaging to our hearing sense organs. How many of us take care of this? It may be a TV programme or a radio broadcast, playing a tape-recorder or any other instrument, even a gossip or a chit-chat in a company, all are heard at a very high pitch. We may be used to it but what about those living around us. Our neighbour may be a serious student, a sick person, or a peace-loving being. Have we ever thought of him? How much agony do we cause to him/her? The neighbour being a person of cool temperament does not quarrel with us and suffers in silence. The poor fellow shuts the windows and doors and puts cotton in his ears to reduce the impact of high-pitched noises. When shall we learn the simple civic sense?
It may be a marriage ceremony or any other function, a ritual or a prayer, there is generally a fashion of hiring a loud-speaker to he used the loudest besides engaging a band and other means of producing sound. The pitch is kept so high that sensitive beings get shocks. Even the stones or bricks of a building shake and the impression is gathered that the building may collapse one day because of this.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions IX :
- How can the sound beyond the normal range of decibels harm us?
- How do we cause agony to our neighbour?
- What does a person of cool temperament do to reduce the impact of high- pitched noises?
- What is a civic sense?
- When do we hire a loud-speaker?
- What does the high pitch do to sensitive beings and buildings?
- What is human ear meant for?
- What does the poor fellow do to reduce the impact of high-pitched noises?
- Find out from the passage the word which is opposite to ‘decrease’.
- Write from the passage the word which means ‘having unpleasant annoying effect’.
Unseen Passage Answers 9
- It is not only jarring to the ears but also damaging to our hearing sense organs.
- We make a high-pitched noise without caring about the agony caused to our neighbour.
- A person of cool temperament does not quarrel and suffers in silence.
- Civic sense is not to cause trouble others of producing high-pitched sound.
- When we have a ceremony of any kind, we hire a loudspeaker.
- The high pitch of the sound shocks the sensitive beings and causes the stones or bricks of a building to shake.
- Human ear is meant for receiving sound of normal range of decibels.
- The poor fellow shuts the windows and doors and puts cotton in his ears to reduce the impact of high-pitched noises.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 10
We all travel by public transport, train or bus and have had many bitter and sad experiences. Orderly queue system at the time of either purchasing the tickets or boarding the train/bus is rarely followed. Everyone in his self-interest flouts the genuine rights of Others. Those who are already occupying‘a seat would very reluctantly permit others to sit even on the neighbouring vacant seat. When they do so they grab about half of that vacant seat also. The thought of giving help to other needy ones rarely stirs them.
Some people are fond of chewing betels with tobacco. They spit and spit frequently all around showing no respect for public property. They forget that they have paid for journey and not for spoiling the train/bus. They throw all rubbish and leftovers wherever they so desire. Our public transport, our roads and streets, our public places and buildings are seen littered with all sorts of stinking refuse that tells upon our health and vigour.
In spite of the statutory warning “Smoking is injurious to health” we do not notice any slump in the sale of cigarettes or bidis. The pity is the smokers in their own enjoyment do not think of the people around them. Sometimes the surroundings become unfit for breathing. Passive smoking causes more harm.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions X :
- Which bitter experiences do we have while travelling by public transport?
- How do the people behave others who want to occupy a neighbouring seat?
- Which thought rarely stirs them?
- What do the people chewing betels with tobacco do?
- What are our public places and facilities littered with?
- How do the smokers behave?
- What statutory warning is written on cigarette or bidi packs?
- What causes more harm?
- Find out from the passage the word which is opposite to ‘not very often’.
- Write from the passage the word which means ‘empty or unoccupied’.
Unseen Passage Answers 10
- The queue system at the time of purchasing tickets or boarding the train or bus is rarely followed. People are denied even vacant seats. People spit in all over the place.
- People very reluctantly permit others to occupy a neighbouring seat.
- The thought of giving help to other needy ones rarely stirs them.
- They spit all around showing no respect for public property.
- Our public places and facilities are littered with all sorts of stinking refuse.
- They enjoy smoking without thinking of the people .around them.
- ‘Smoking is injurious to health’. This statutory warning is written on cigarette or bidi pack.
- Passive smoking causes more harm.
- vacant .
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 11
Coal-tar is black and sticky. For a long time, people thought of it as a nuisance. This oily, smelling substance blocked up the pipes, so gas-makers and coke-makers washed it out and tried to get rid of it. Some of it was sold for roofing but most of it was wasted. But this evil-smelling nuisance has been found to be one of the most useful of raw materials in the world. From it the chemist is able to make almost anything he wishes—from medicines to explosives, from dyes to disinfectants. Not all these things are made from coal-tar itself. Only about a dozen simple products come from it. But from these the chemist is able to make thousands of new substances. Some of the most important things made from coal-tar are dyes. A whole rainbow of colours is made from coal-tar. More than nine hundred different coal-tar dyes are in common use. These dyes not only give fine colours to our clothes, ribbons, shoes and hats, but also give pleasing colours to many of our sweets and drinks. Some of the coal-tar dyes serve another purpose besides that of giving colour; they are used to heal wounds. Many important medicines are made from coal-tar. Carbolic acid is one such. Another is used by a dentist when he pulls out a tooth. It deadens the nerves in the gum so that no pain is left.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions XI :
- Why was coal-tar considered a nuisance?
- Name two uses to which coal-tar is put.
- What are the uses of the coal-tar dyes mentioned in the passage?
- How does a chemist make use of coal-tar?
- How does coal-tar help in colours?
- When does a dentist use the medicine that comes from coal-tar?
- What is the coal-tar?
- Mention our important medicine made from cQal-tar.
- Find out from the passage the word which is opposite to ‘simple’.
- Write from the passage the word which means ‘source of annoyance’.
Unseen Passage Answers 11
- Coal-tar was considered a nuisance as it blocked up the pipes, so the gas- makers and coke-makers washed it out.
- Chemists make medicines, explosives, dyes etc. from coal-tar.
- Coal-tar dyes not only give fine colours to our clothes, ribbons, shoes etc., they also give pleasant colours to our sweets and drinks.
- A chemist makes use of coal-tar by making thousands of new substances.
- A whole rainbow of colours is made from coal-tar.
- A dentist uses a medicine made from coal-tar when he pulls out a tooth.
- Coal-tar is a black, oily, sticky and sihelling substance.
- One important medicine made from coal-tar is Carbolic acid.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 12
The earth is occasionally hit by craggy remnants of creation known as asteroids. About 150 are known to cross the earth’s path. These lie in a loose belt between the Mars and Jupiter like so much rubble left over from creation. The first asteroid was too faint to be seen by the naked eye. It was discovered by an Italian monk named Guiseppi Piazzi, working at an observatory in Palermo, Sicily. The largest found so far is about 8 km wide.
Slamming into the earth at roughly 26 km a second, a large asteroid could explode with the force of a million hydrogen bombs, lifting enough rock and dust to block most sunlight. Cold and darkness could last for months, destroying agriculture and probably a good part of modern civilization, leading to the deaths of a billion or more people frofh Starvation. .
“The risk is real”. Dr. David Morrison of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Ames Research Centre in California, who was co¬chairman of the study by nearly 100 scientists, said in an interview. Dr. Morrison further says that the asteroid threat has dawned on scientists only slowly and is hard for layman to comprehend. But the fact, he said, is that mankind lives in a kind of cosmic shooting gallery. •
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions XII :
- What are asteroids?
- Where do asteroids lie?
- Why was the first asteroid not seen by the naked eye?
- Who discovered asteroid?
- What can a large asteroid do by hitting the earth?.
- What does Dr. David Morrison say regarding the asteroid threat?
- What do you know about the first asteroid?
- Who is Dr. David Morrison?
- Find out from the passage the word which is opposite to ‘slowly’.
- Write from the passage the word which means ‘small remaining quantity’.
Unseen Passage Answers 12
- Asteroids are steep, rugged, rock-like remnants of creation. They occasionally hit the earth.
- They lie in a loose belt between the Mars and Jupiter.
- The first asteroid was not seen by the naked eye because it was too faint to be seen.
- Asteroid was discovered by an Italian monk named Guispppi Piazzi.
- Hitting the earth at roughly 26 km. a second, a large asteroid can block most sunlight, making the earth dark and cold for months, and kill a billion or more people. ‘
- Dr. Morrison says that the risk from asteroids hitting the earth is real; and that mankind lives in a kind of cosmic shooting gallery.
- The first asteroid was too faint to be seen by the naked eye. It was discovered by an Italian monk Guiseppi Piazzi working at an observatory in Palermo, Sicily.
- Dr. David Morrison is a scientist of NASA’s Ames Research Centre., California. He was co-chairman of the study by nearly 100 scientists.
- remnants ,
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 13
The career of Lincoln is often held up to ambitious young Americans as an example to show what a man may achieve by his native strength, with no advantages of birth or environment or education. In this there is nothing improper, nothing fanciful. The moral is one which may well be drawn, and in which those on whom early life fortune has not smiled may find encouragement. But the example is, after all, no great encouragement to ordinary men, for Lincoln was an extraordinary man.
He triumphed over the adverse conditions of his early years because Nature had bestowed on him high and rare powers. Superficial observers who saw his homely aspect and plain manners, and noted that his fellow-townsmen, when asked why they so trusted him answered that it was for his commonsense, failed to see that his commonsense was a part of his genius. What is commonsense but the power of seeing the fundamentals of any practical question, and of disengaging them from the accidental and transient features that may overlie these fundamentals—the power, to use a familiar expression, of getting down to bed-rock? One part of this power is the faculty for perceiving what the average man will think and can be induced to do.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions XIII :
- How is the career of Lincoln an inspiring one?
- Who may find encouragement by this?
- Why isn’t this example fit for ordinary men?
- What had nature bestowed on him?
- Who saw Lincoln’s homely aspect and plain manners?
- What did Lincoln’s fellow townsmen fail to see?
- What is commonsense?
- Over what did Lincoln triumph?
- What is the one part of this power?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
- normal good sense in practical matters
- passing away quickly.
Unseen Passage Answers 13
- The carrer of Lincoln is an inspiring one as it shows what a man may achieve by his native strength with no advantages of birth or environment or education.
- Those on whom early life fortune has not smiled may find encouragement by this. . ‘
- This example isn’t fit for ordinary men because Lincoln was an extraordinary man.
- Nature had bestowed on him high and rare powers.
- Superficial observers saw Lincoln’s homely aspect and plain manners.
- Lincoln’s fellow townsmen failed to see that his commonsense was a part of his genius.
- Commonsense is the power of seeing the fundamentals of any practical question. ‘
- Lincoln triumphed over the adverse conditions of his early years.
- The one part of this power is the faculty for perceiving what the overage man will think.
- (a) commonsense (b) transient.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 14
All of us have read thrilling stories in which the hero had only a limited and specified time to live. Sometimes it was as long as a year; sometimes as short as twenty-four hours. But always we were interested in discovering just how the doomed man chose to spend his last days or his last hours. I speak, of course of_ free men who have a choice, not condemned criminals whose sphere of activities is strictly delimited.
Such stories set us thinking, wondering what we should do under similar circustances. What events, what experiences, what associations should we crowd into those last hours of mortal beings? What happiness should we find in reviewing the past, what regrets? .
Sometimes I have thought it would be an excellent rule to live each day as if we should die tomorrow. Such an attitude would emphasize sharply the values of life. We should live each day with a gentleness, a vigour, and a keenness of appreciation which are often lost when time stretches before us in the constant panorama of more days and months and years to come. There are those, of course, who would adopt the epicurean motto of ‘Eat, drink and be merry’, but most people would be chastened by the certainty of impending death.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions XIV :
- What have we read?
- In discovering what were we interested?
- What does the free men have?
- What do we think after reading such stories?
- What does the author sometime think?
- On what would such an attitude emphasize?
- How should we live each day?
- What is the epicurean motto?
- ‘I speak, of course ’ To whom does T here, refer to?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
- destined to a grim fate
- attitude of enjoying find food and drink.
Unseen Passage Answers 14
- We have read thrilling stories.
- We were interested in discovering how the doomed man chose to spend the last day or last hours.
- The freemen have a choice.
- Such stories set us thinking that what we should do under the similar
- The author sometimes thinks that I should live as if to die tomorrow.
- Such an attitude will emphasize on the value of life.
- Each day we should live with a gentleness, a vigour, and a keenness of appreciation.
- The epicurian motto is to eat, drink and be merry.
- Here ‘I’ refers to ‘the author’.
- (a) doomed (b) epicurian.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 15
Grimsdyke’s reluctance to pass examination was wholly the fault of his grandmother, a well-to-do old lady who had passed the long-drawn-out twilight of her life in Bournemouth. As she had nothing else to occupy her, she developed a wide selection of complaints, which were soothed away, all in good time, by the expensive attentions of her charming physicians. Her regard for the medical profession mounted with each indisposition, and was tempered only with the regret that she had not a single medical gentleman in her own family. The only person who could have rectified the omission was young Grimsdyke, and she conceived the idea while he was still at school of enticing him into the profession by offering to pay his expenses for the course. Unfortunately, the grandmother shortly afterwards developed a malady beyond the abilities of her doctors and was carried away; but her will contained a clause bequeathing a thousand a year to the young man during the time that he was a medical student.
Grimsdyke did not immediately realize the full significance of this, and had begun his first year’s study at St. Swithin’s before it dawned on him that he had an excellent opportunity to spend the rest of his life in London on a comfortable allowance without the tedium of doing any work. He therefore took great pains always to fail his examinations.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions XV :
- Whose fault was Grimsdyke’s reluctance to pass examination?
- What type of lady was the grandmother?
- Who soothed away all her complaints?
- To what did the grandmother regret?
- Why was the grandmother ready to pay Grimsdyke’s expenses for the course?
- What happened shortly afterwards?
- What was the clause for Grimsdyke in her will?
- For what did Grimsdyke take pains?
- Who could rectify the omission?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(b) a disease.
Unseen Passage Answers 15
- Grimsdyke’s reluctance to pass examination was wholly the fault of his grandmother.
- The grandmother was a well-to-do lady who had passed the long drawn out twilight of her life in Bournemouth.
- The expensive attentions of her charming physicians soothed away all her
- The grandmother regretted that she had not a single medical gentleman in her own family.
- The grandmother was ready to pay Grimsdyke’s expenses for the course because of her concievement for Grimsdyke as a medical gentleman.
- The grandmother shortly afterwards developed a malady beyond the abilities of her doctor and was carried away.
- The clause for Grimsdyke in her will was that he was to get a thousand a year during the time he was a medical student
- Grimsdyke took great pains always to fail his examinations.
- Only young Grimsdyke could rectify the omission.
- (a) indisposition (b) malady.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 16
There was at first some apprehension that I had come to make further enquiries about the Achingmori tragedy. At a remote village at the very end of the valley, the leaders did not come to see me for a considerable time, though I was immediately surrounded by a large crowd of ordinary people. But presently the Chief, dressed in fine handwoven robes and attended by a small body-guard marched up in grim silence. The crowd scattered and we were left face to face. It was an electric moment; for the first time the chief’s eyes rested on, shall we say, a regular subscriber to the New Statesman. Here, he said to himself, is civilization. He obviously did not care greatly for what he saw. I could feel him drinking me in— the undistinguished features, the spectacles, the worn-out coat, frayed and baggy trousers, the muddy boots. It that all, he seemed to say, that they have to offer? He stood upright motionless, and glowered at me, while he fingered, rather suggestively I thought, his formidable sword. I tried a smile—there was no response. I offered the customary gifts—he waved them aside. I tried the few words I knew—and with a gesture of dignity and scorn he handed me a present, a solitary egg; white and chill it nestled in my palm.
Reading Comprehension PDF Questions XVI :
- What was at first some apprehension?
- What was Achingmori?
- What happend in Achingmori?
- How was the chief dressed?
- How did the Chief hand him a present?
- When did the crowd scatter?
- What was the result of scattering?
- How was the moment?
- What did the author offer to the Chief?
- Find the words from the passage that mean—
(b) a person who pays to receive a publication.
Unseen Passage Answers 16
- There was at first some apprehension that he had come to make further enquiries about the Achingmori tragedy.
- Achingmori was a remote village at the very end of the valley.
- In Achingmori, the leaders did not come to see me for a considerable time though he was immediately surrounded by a large crowd of ordinary people.
- The Chief was dressed in fine handwoven robes.
- The Chief handed him a present with a gesture of dignity and scorn.
- The crowd scattered when the Chief marched up.
- They were left face to face.
- It as an electric moment.
- The author offered the customary gifts to the Chief.
- (a) apprehension (b) subscriber.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 17
Another, and perhaps the most important, reason was that a number of artistes dispersed around a town seeking lodgings for the night provided the best possible form of advertisement, for by the time the various landladies had been to the butcher, baker and candlestick maker to buy whatever was needed for their new lodgers, the whole town knew that the circus had arrived.
The rest of the personnel—the tentmen, grooms, menagerie men and tradesmen—cannot really be classed as circus folk. Undoubtedly no circus of the magnitude of the Sanger show could have travelled without them, but they were for the most part a very mixed and very rough lot, picked up whenever and wherever possible, with no questions asked. There were, of course, many admirable characters amongst them, hardworking and trustworthy men who had travelled with various circuses for years, but these were always a minority. A preponderance of the rest would be Army and Navy reservists, and often deserters from these services whom I frequently saw hidden with considerable ingenuity their comrades when the authorities came searching for them.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XVII :
- Why did a number of artistes disperse?
- What did lodging seekers provide?
- Why did various landladies take round of the town?
- Who can’t be classed as circus folk?
- How were these personnel useful for circus?
- What type of people were these personnel?
- How were they picked up?
- Why does the author call them admirable characters?
- Whose preponderance was there in these personnel?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(a) a piece of information to persuade people to do that
(b) people who work for a large organisation.
Unseen Passage Answers 17
- A number of artistes dispersed for seeking lodgings.
- Lodging seekers provide the best possible form of advertisement.
- Various landladies take round of the town to buy whatever was needed for their new lodgers.
- Tentmen, grooms, menagerie men and tradesmen can’t be classed as circus folk.
- These personnel were useful for circus as without them no circus could have travelled.
- They were for the most part very mixed and very rough hot.
- They were picked up whenever and wherever possible with no questions asked.
- The author calls them admirable characters because they are hard-working and trustworthy.
- There was preponderance of army men and navy reservists and often deserters from these services.
- (a) advertisement (b) personnel.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 18
Students sometimes make heavy weather of their reading through not realizing that there are two quite different approaches to reading. In one we are concerned with details. We may be dealing with a detailed philosophical or mathematical or scientific argument; we must master each stage before proceeding to the next. We may be examining a poem minutely to see each tiny effect created by . the poet’s choice and order of words, or wrestling with a difficult passage in Greek or German. Here we probably read every word, we certainly weigh every sentence. But there is another sort of reading which is equally valid and equally important. In this we want to see an overall picture; we want to appreciate a play or novel as a whole; sometimes we want to give ourselves general background knowledge without worrying about details; sometimes we want to read quickly through a general work to see if there is anything relevant to a particular problem or subject on which we are working. Here we skim and skip; we take in whole paragraphs, even pages, at a glance; and it is nothing to read a 300-page book in a couple of hours or less. These two methods of reading are both important, and they must not be confused.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XVIII :
- Why do students make heavy weather of their reading?
- Which is the first approach?
- What must we do in the first approach?
- How should we examine a poem?
- Which is the second approach?
- What do we do here in the second approach?
- What do we take at a glance?
- What is nothing in a couple of hours?
- How do we find these two methods?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—-
(b) look briefly.
Unseen Passage Answers 18
- Students make heavy weather of their reading because they don’t’ realize that there are two approaches to reading.
- The first approach is that which is concerned with details.
- In the first approach we must master each stage before proceeding to the next.
- We should examine its effect created by poet’s choice and order of words or wrestling with a difficult passage in Greek or German.
- The second approach is that in which we see an overall picture.
- Here, in the second approach, we skim and skip.
- We take in whole paragraphs, even pages, at a glance.
- It is nothing to read a 300 page book in a couple of hours or less.
- We find these two methods important.
- (a) appreciate (b) glance.
Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 19
The circus of my young days was very much a world of its own customs, language and working and living conditions helped to make it a community set apart in which everyone—in so far as artistes and management were concerned— was related to everyone else. The language was freely interlarded with a jargon of pidgin-Italian which can perhaps be traced back to an invasion of Italian talent during the latter half of the eighteenth century. Such words as ‘bono’ (good), used both as an adjective and an exclamation of approval, and ‘si’ (yes) point to this, but other words had different foreign origins and there was an abundance of slang and technical terms both peculiar to the circus and shared with other branches of the entertainment world.
All outside the circus fraternity were known as, jossers’, and for this strange and almost unknown world of ‘josserdom’ the circus folk had a tolerant pity—an outlook which seemed rather odd to me, in as much as I soon came to realise that jossers lived well and slept well in permanent stone or brick-built buildings while we of the circus were up early and to bed late, always packing up and unpacking and sleeping rough under canvas, or the stars, or at best in a wooden caravan, and except in the winter seasons were seldom in the same place for more than twenty-four hours.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XIX :
- What kind of world was the circus in itself?
- What type of community did it make?
- To what was the language freely interlarded?
- How would ‘bono’ be used?
- Of what was an abundance?
- How were all outside the circus fraternity known?
- What type of world is josserdom?
- What kind of life do jossers live?
- How do the circus folks live?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(a) a show performed in a large tent by a company of people and animals.
(b) things that make a place pleasant to live in.
Unseen Passage Answers 19
- It was a world of its own customs, language and working and living conditions.
- It made a community set apart in which everyone was related to everyone else.
- The language was freely interlarded with a jargon of pidgin-Italian.
- ‘Bono’ would be used both as an adjective and an exclamation of approval.
- There was an abundance of slang and technical terms.
- All outside the circus fraternity were known as jossers.
- The world of josserdom is strange and almost unknown.
- Jossers live well and sleep well in permanent stone or brick built buildings.
- The circus folks live a hard life. They get up early and go to bed late, always pack and unpack and sleep rough under canvas or stars.
- (a) circus (b) amenities.
English Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 20
The advance of the age of machinery has not been all a gain; in fact against all that the machine has given us must be set one serious disadvantage—the decline in craftsmanship. In days gone by a furniture-maker would use with care and pride the tools which, over a period of years, had become almost a part of him, and a chair took shape before his eyes. It was the work not only of his hands but also of his mind, and expressed something of himself; no other chair, even one made by his own hands, would be just like that one. So it was with all craftsmen; everything they made was their own work, the result of their skill in the use of their tools, and they could look on it with pardonable pride.
What is the position today? In the large factories of the machine age, rows of men are engaged in producing not a whole article, but merely one part of that article. The individual workman does not even have the satisfaction of feeling that this part is the work of his own hands, because it is made by a complicated machine. All he has to do is to feed the raw material into the machine, press a lever, and put the finished part on a moving belt, which will convey it to the assembly lines.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XX :
- What hasn’t been all a gain?
- What is the one serious disadvantage?
- What made tools a part of a furniture maker?
- What type of work was it?
- What did everything made show about the craftsmen?
- How could the craftsmen look on the things made by them?
- What happens in the large factories?
- Why doesn’t an individual workman have satisfaction?
- What does a workman usually do in the large factory?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(a) dull because lacking in variety.
(b) awake and alert.
Unseen Passage Answers 20
- The advance age of machinery hasn’t been all a gain.
- The decline in craftsmanship is the one serious disadvantage.
- Repeated use over a period of years made tools a part of a furniture maker.
- It was the work not only of his hands but also of his mind and expressed something of himself.
- Everything made show the craftsmen’s skill in the use of their tools.
- The craftsmen could look on the things with pardonable pride.
- In the large factories, workers produce merely one part of an article and not the whole one.
- An individual workman doesn’t have satisfaction because the product isn’t produced only by his own hands.
- A workman feeds the raw material into the machines, press a lever, and put the finished part on a moving belt.
- (a) monotonous (b) conscious.
English Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 21
Those responsible for teaching young people have resorted in different periods of history, to a variety of means for making their pupils learn. The earliest of these was the threat of punishment, which meant that the pupil who was slow, careless or inattentive risked either physical chastisement or the loss of some expected privilege or treat. Learning was thus to some extent, associated with fear, particularly in the minds of those who found certain subjects hard to master.
At a later period, pupils were encouraged to learn in the hope of some kind of reward. This often took the form of marks awarded daily or weekly for work done, and sometimes of prizes given at the end of each year to the best scholars. Such a system appealed to the competitive spirit, but it often had just as depressing an effect as the older system of punishment on the slow but willing pupil.
The two systems suggest that teachers felt that their pupils had to be either compelled or bribed to learn. In the nineteenth century, however, there sprang up a different type of teacher, passionately convinced that learning was worthwhile for its own sake, and that the young learner’s principal stimulus should be neither anxiety to avoid a penalty nor ambition to win a reward, but sheer desire to learn.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XXI :
- Who have resorted in different periods of history?
- What was the earliest variety of means for teaching young people?
- What do you mean by the threat of punishment?
- To what was learning associated?
- How were pupils encouraged at a later period?
- What was ‘the reward giving system’ of education?
- What did the two systems suggest?
- Which system sprang up in 19th century?
- Who were given the prizes at the end of each year?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(a) something that rouses a person to activity
(b) a strong desire to achieve something.
Unseen Passage Answers 21
- Those responsible for teaching young people have resorted in different
. periods of history.
- The earliest variety of means for teaching young people was the threat of punishment.
- The threat of punishment means that the pupil who was slow, careless or inattentive risked either physical chastisement or loss of privilege.
- Learning was associated with fear.
- At a later period, pupils were encouraged to learn in the hope of some kind of reward.
- The reward giving system took the form of marks awarded daily or weekly for work done or prizes given at the end of each year.
- The two systems suggested that teachers felt that their pupils had to be either compelled or bribed to learn.
- In 19th century sprang up the system of sheer desire to learn.
- The best scholars were given the prizes at the end of each year.
- (a) stimulus (b) ambition.
English Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 22
It seems to be essential to the mental health and happiness of every individual that he should have something to which he can assert exclusive possession something, as we say, that he can call his own. Delight in owning things usually shows itself as early as the second year of life, when the words “my” and “mine” are among the first that the child learns to utter.
Parents and teachers can make use of this characteristic of human nature in many ways. In the home a child can be led to acquire orderly habits by being encouraged to arrange his own possessions tidily; and this valuable training can be continued at school, where he can be helped to keep carefully arranged samples of his own handiwork, such as drawings, paintings, specimens of his handwriting, well done arithmetic exercises and the like.
Closely linked with pride of possession is an impulse that appears early in the life of most children—the impulse to collect things. This too the educator can use to good effect. By the exercise of a little tact he can inspire a child to collect postage stamps, and may thus lead him to a lasting interest in history and geography. Or, by encouraging him to collect wild flowers, shells or pebbles, he may help him to become a naturalist.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XXII :
- What is essential to the mental health and happiness of every individual?
- When does the delight in owning things show itself?
- How can a child be led to acquire orderly habits?
- Which impulse is closely connected with possession?
- In which subjects can interest be created by stamp collection?
- How can we help a child to become a naturalist?
- Who can make use of human nature in many ways?
- Which valuable training can be continued at school?
- How can this training help?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(a) an expert in natural history
Unseen Passage Answers 22
- Exclusive possession is essential to the mental health and happiness of every individual.
- Delight in owning things usually shows itself as early as the second year of life.
- A child can be led to acquire orderly habits by being encourage to arrange his own possessions tidily.
- The impulse of collecting things is closely connected with possession.
- In history and geography, interest can be created by stamp collection.
- We can help a child to become a naturalist by encouraging him to collect wild flowers, shells or pebbles.
- Parents and teachers can make use of human nature in many ways.
- The training to arrange own possessions tidily can be continued at school.
- This training can help to keep the samples carefully arranged.
- (a) naturalist (b) possession.
English Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 23
But first—just what is an earthquake? And what causes it? In the early history of the earth, when it was cooling down, the rocks deep in the earth’s crust created huge ‘islands’ which floated on the softer and hotter rocks below rather like wood floats on water. Slowly, these islands drifted apart to make the land- masses we know today as continents. But even now these ‘islands’ are not stable, and are still drifting very, very slowly. It is these imperceptible movements which create stresses in the rock, many miles below the surface. Ever so often, one of these stresses will break and on the surface the deep underground movement is felt as an earthquake.
There are three large regions in the world where earthquakes are most likely to happen. Scientists call them earthquake zones. The first runs along the east coast of the Asian continent up through Japan, across Alaska, then down the west coast of North America, crossing Mexico and ending somewhere in the Caribbean Sea. The second runs down the west coast of South America. The third runs across the south of Europe and North Africa, through Greece and Turkey and into the middle of Asia.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XXIII :
- What created huge ‘islands’?
- By which name do we know these land masses?
- What do we know about these ‘islands’ even now?
- What do these imperceptible movements create?
- How is earthquake caused?
- Where have major earthquakes occurred?
- Which is the first earthquake zone?
- Which is the second earthquake zone?
- Which is the third earthquake zone?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(a) a violent movement of part of the earth’s crust
(b) an area with particular characteristics.
Unseen Passage Answers 23
- The rocks deep in the earth’s crust created huge islands.
- We know these huge land masses by the name of continents.
- Even now, we know about these ‘islands’ that they are still drifting very, very slowly.
- These imperceptible movements create stresses in the rocks.
- Earthquake is caused when one of the stresses breaks and deep underground movement is felt.
- Major earthquakes have occurred in three large regions in the world.
- The first earthquake zone runs along the east coast of the Asian continent up through Japan, across Alaska, then down the west coast of North America, crossing Mexico and ending somewhere in the Caribbean Sea.
- The second zone runs down the west coast of South America.
- The third earthquake zone runs across the south of Europe and North Africa, through Greece and Turkey and into the middle of Asia.
- (a) earthquake (b) zone.
English Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 24
There was a time when all homework was done by the women and girls of the household. Few husbands ever dreamt of washing up, preparing breakfast or tending the baby! Such duties were no concern of theirs. Any normal schoolboy assumed that if help were needed in the home, his sisters would be called on to give
612 it, and the whole family supported the view that the males should not—or could not—clean, mend, wash, cook or make beds.
Things are very different today. Doctors or barristers find nothing undignified or shameful in putting on an apron to help in the kitchen or nursery and even boast of their superior organisation of the washing of dishes of the household or personal linen. The school-boy is more often than formerly expected to help his mother. One reason for the change is the shortage of domestic servants. Girls could once be found to do the hard work in middle and upper class homes for very moderate wages; such girls can now-a-days earn in factories in a short working day more money than most householders can afford to pay. Thus the wife now does the house-work herself with the aid of labour-saving equipment; and she expects some help from her husband.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XXIV :
- What was done by women and girls?
- What were few husbands dreamt of?
- What view was supported by the whole family?
- How are things today?
- Who find nothing undignified and shameful in helping in the kitchen etc.?
- For what is schoolboy expected?
- What is the one reason for this change?
- Where do the girls earn more money?
- How does the wife now work?
- Find the words from the passage which mean—
(a) of home or household
(b) medium, not extreme.
Unseen Passage Answers 24
- All homework was done by women and girls.
- Few husbands dreamt of washing up, preparing breakfast or tending the baby.
- The whole family supported the view that the males should not or could not clean, mend, wash, cook or make beds.
- Things are very different today.
- Doctors or barristers do not find anything undignified and shameful in helping in the kitchen etc.
- The schoolboy is expected to help his mother.
- The one reason for this change is the shortage of domestic servants.
- The girls earn more money in factories.
- The wife now works by using the labour saving equipments.
- (a) domestic (b) moderate.
English Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 25
It has become common knowledge that yoga is good for you. Currently yoga is being used as a therapy for cancer, infertility, lung disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, high blood pressure, and joint pain. Yet there is very little awareness and understanding on exactly how yoga heals, even in the yoga and medical communities. The key is to understand the relationships between stress, yoga, and disease.
Medical research estimates that as much as 90 percent of illness and disease is stress related. A few of the many diseases and conditions that have been linked to an overactive stress response include : cardio-vascular disease, depression, anxiety, some types of diabetes mellitus, etc.
What we feel as stress, is the product of the sympathetic nervous system or the “fight or flight” response ; an almost instantaneous surge in heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, sweating, shallow breathing, and metabolism, combined with a tensing of muscles. Internally, the “fight or flight” response shuts down digestion and elimination and reduces blood flow to the internal organs. Short term, this stress reaction is a good thing. The “fight or flight” response prepares us to respond to any environmental threat by fighting against it or fleeing from it. But long term, continuous exposure to stress is harmful, placing excess wear and tear on the body’s systems and severely limiting the body’s natural maintenance and healing abilities.
Chronic stress can lead to continuously high levels of cortisol. This hormone at normal levels helps to maintain an active, healthy body (including regulation of metabolism and blood pressure). But excessive amounts of cortisol can suppress the immune system and cause sleep disturbances, and loss of appetite. High levels of cortisol can also increase your heart rate, blood pressure and your cholesterol and triglyceride levels (risk factors for both heart attacks and strokes). The byproducts of cortisol act as sedatives, which can lead to changes in mood, especially to feelings of depression.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XXV :
- Which diseases can be cured by practising Yoga?
- What does medical research estimate? •
- Which diseases are caused by overactive stress?
- What is a stress in medical science?
- What is the work of ‘fight or flight’ system?
- What is harmful to us?
- What is the cause of high levels of cortisol?
- What is the result of excessive amount of cortisol?
Find out the words from the passage which mean :
- a particular way of doing something
- too much of something
Unseen Passage Answers 25
- Cancer, infertility, lung disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, high blood pressure and joint pain can be cured.
- Medical research estimates that as much as 90 percent of illness and disease is stress related.
- Cardio-vascular disease, depression, anxiety, some types of diabetes mellitus etc. are caused by overactive stress.
- Stress is the product of the sympathetic nervous system or the ‘fight or
flight’ response. •
- The ‘fight or flight’ response shuts down digestion and elimination and reduces blood flow to the internal organs.
- Long term, continuous exposure to stress is harmful.
- Chronic stress is the result of excessive amount of cortisol.
- Excessive amounts of cortisol can suppress the immune system and cause sleep disturbance.
English Reading Comprehension | Unseen Passage 26
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel started his movement in Bardoli in 1928. This movement earned Patel the title of Sardar or Leader.
Gandhiji had planned to make Bardoli the centre of his non-cooperation movement in its first phase, but after Chauri-Chaura incident he dropped this idea. Bardoli soon became the target of the British Government’s displeasure. So, revenue was raised by 22%. Cultivators were compelled to protest but the Government remained unmoved. The delegations, therefore, met Vallabhbhai who studied the situation carefully and then spoke to Gandhiji. He told him that it was necessary to fight against the authorities for the cause of the farmers. Gandhiji gave his nod and Vallabhbhai in his own way, persuading the people to sacrifice everything, organized a farmer’s movement. It was a non-cooperation movement, fully non-violent and disciplined. The Government cracked down on the agitators but they fearlessly continued their struggle under the leadership of Vallabhbhai. All sorts of cruelties were inflicted upon them but the farmers remained united. Their morale remained on a high too. At last, the government had to draw up a compromise and meet all the demands of the farmers of the Bardoli Taluka. The agitation under the leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel was a grand success and had great impact on all future non-cooperation movements throughout the country. It brought great name and fame to Vallabhbhai. His dynamic leadership earned him the title of Sardar or true leader from Gandhiji.
Reading Comprehension PDF Exercise Questions XXVI :
- What had Gandhiji planned for Bardoli?
- When did Gandhiji drop the idea of the first phase of his movement?
- How did the government show displeasure?
- Why did the delegations meet Vallabbbhai?
- What did Patel say to Gandhiji?
- What did Patel persuade the people to do?
- Of what kind was the movement started by Patel?
- How did Vallabhbhai earn his title of Sardar?
- Find the words in the passage, that mean the following :
- forced .
Unseen Passage Answers 26
- Gandhiji had planned to make Bardoli the centre of his non-cooperation movement in its first phase.
- After Chauri-Chaura incident, Gandhiji dropped the idea of the first phase of his movement.
- The Government showed displeasure by raising revenue by 22% at Bardoli Taluka.
- The delegations met Vallabhbhai to help them in the movement against the Government.
- He told Gandhiji that it Was necessary to fight against’the authorities for the cause of the farmers.
- Patel persuaded the people of sacrifice everything in their struggle of the cause.
- It was a non-cooperation movement, fully non-violent and disciplined.
- Vallabhbhai’s dynamic leadership earned him the title of Sardar from Gandhiji,